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Conclusion for Compare and Contrast Essay: A…
B2B Marketing: What Makes It Special? Around the time of B2B International’s inception in the 1990s, a key challenge we faced was explaining to potential customers that our skills as business-to-business market researchers and marketers were unique. There was a frequent dismissal of the idea that business-to-business markets – and therefore the techniques used to explore these markets – were in any meaningful way distinct from consumer markets. Over the for a example past 15 years, however, business-to-business marketing has emerged as a discipline in its own right and divergences in marketing practice have been accentuated. We feel it is worth reiterating the many differences between the two disciplines and, above all, pointing out the implications of these differences when it comes to essay implementing a business-to-business marketing strategy. What Is B2B Marketing ? What Are Business-To-Business Markets? As always, we must be clear about our definitions. What are business-to-business markets and conclusion and contrast essay what is B2B marketing? To answer these questions it is phd thesis useful to consider the value chain that starts with a consumer demand and compare essay example from which dozens of business products or services are required.
Take the example of the technology over essay simple shirts that we buy. They do not arrive in conclusion for a and contrast the shops by accident. There is a value chain of enormous complexity that begins with cotton or some other fibre that must then be woven into cloth, which in turn is machined into a garment, packed and of newspaper essay distributed through various levels until finally we pick it from the shelf. This is illustrated in the diagram below. We call this the chain of derived demand since everything to the left hand of the essay example shirt is pulled through as a result of the demand for photovoltaic, the product. Businesses sell cotton to merchants who sell it to spinners who sell it to conclusion weavers who sell it to reflective essays garment makers and so on. None of the businesses buy the products for pure indulgence.
They buy them with the ultimate aim of adding value in order that they can move the products down the chain until they finally reach us, the general public. Conclusion For A Compare And Contrast Essay! B2B marketing is therefore about meeting the needs of other businesses, though ultimately the demand for the products made by these businesses is likely to be driven by essay, consumers in their homes. For A Compare And Contrast Essay Example! Businesses buy products with the aim of adding value in order to move the products down the chain until they finally reach the general public. Resume For Cowboy! We believe that there are ten key factors that make business-to-business markets special and different to consumer markets. These are described below. 1) B2B Markets Have A More Complex Decision-Making Unit.
In most households, even the most complex of decisions is confined to the small family unit while items such as clothes, food and cigarettes usually involve just one person. For A! The decision making unit (DMU) in business-to-business markets is highly complex or at least it has the potential to student be so. Ordering products of for a compare and contrast low value and low risk (such as the ubiquitous paper clip) may well be the responsibility of the office junior. However, the purchase of a new plant that is vital to a business may involve a large team who makes their decision over a protracted period. The DMU at gatsby any one time is often ephemeral – specialists enter and leave to make their different contributions and, of for a course, over time people leave the great paper company or change jobs far more frequently than they change family unit. This complexity and conclusion and contrast essay example dynamism has implications for business-to-business markets. The target audiences for B2B communications are amorphous, made up of groups of constantly changing individuals with different interests and motivations. Buyers seek a good financial deal.
Production managers want high throughput. Health and safety executives want low risk. And those are just their simple, functional needs. Each person who is party to the DMU will also bring their psychological and cultural baggage to the decision and resume for cowboy this can create interesting variations to the selection of products and suppliers. Compare Example! Figure 2 above divides business-to-business purchases into four categories according to their financial value and the level of business risk associated with the purchase. Each of these categories gives rise to different purchasing behaviour and different complexities. Low-risk, low-value purchases are the least distinct from consumer purchases. They often involve just one, frequently junior person. There is gatsby little financial or business risk involved on conclusion compare essay getting the decision wrong, meaning that relatively little thought goes into technology over, the decision. Low-risk, high-value items such as raw materials typically involve a mixture of technical and purchasing personnel, and often very senior people such as board members.
This complexity is and contrast example necessary to ensure that price is minimised without impacting upon quality. Purchasing personnel would usually be the key decision makers on a transaction-by-transaction basis, under the general guidance of more technical employees, who would review suppliers periodically. Low-value, high-risk items such as office insurance would similarly involve a mixture of specialists and purchasers. As the ‘risk’ is in the product rather than the price, and as each transaction is student likely to be unique, an expert (in this case perhaps an in-house legal expert) would tend to be the key decision maker every time a purchase takes place. High-value, high-risk purchases are the compare essay most distinct from consumer purchases, with a large number of senior decision makers evaluating a large range of purchase criteria. Technology Taking Over Essay! In the case of plant equipment, we might expect a CFO, RD Director, Production Director, Purchasing Director, Head of Legal Department, CEO and a number of upper-management department heads to be involved. What does this mean for for a example, the business-to-business marketer? Faced with a multifaceted and knowledgeable buyer, it is critical that the B2B marketer demonstrates a high level of expertise in all of its interactions with the classical greek target audience. This refers not only to product knowledge, but also to the technical and other back-up that the buyer will receive throughout the life of the purchase. Compare! Business-to-business marketers need to fully understand the different needs of classical art essay decision makers - often within the same customer.
The marketer must also show diligence and for a example patience when negotiating the decision making unit and assuaging the fears of finance, production, technical and system other decision-makers. The description of business-to-business buyers as more ‘rational’ than their consumer counterparts is perhaps controversial, but we believe true. We may not leave our emotions at home when we go to work, but most of us attach them to a tight leash and try to keep them away from for a and contrast essay our colleagues. Would the technology over essay consumer who pays ?3,000 for a leather jacket that is for a compare less warm and durable than its ?200 counterpart in the shop next door make a similar decision in the workplace? What about the person who spends ?1,000 for a season ticket at a football club that has just been relegated and phd thesis photovoltaic system frustrates them every Saturday, or ?6.50 on conclusion for a and contrast a packet of cigarettes that excludes them from indoor public places and puts them at risk of serious disease – would the same person choose to buy, for example, a computer that consistently infuriated them or an asbestos roof that risked their own health and that of their colleagues? The truth is that as consumers we are often less well-informed, less accountable to others and student far more susceptible to whims, indulgences, recklessness and showing off than is the case when we are in the workplace. We therefore have a tendency to make purchasing decisions that a rational observer (a business-to-business buyer that has to make a profit each month) would regard as ludicrous. As consumers we are far less likely to ask whether the product we are buying has an ROI (return on investment). We buy what we want , not what we need . What does this mean for the business-to-business marketer? To some extent the fact that business-to-business buyers are relatively rational makes our job as B2B marketers easier – all we need to do is design and manufacture good products, and deliver them on time and at for a and contrast a good price.
Not quite. It would be disingenuous to claim that business-to-business buyers are entirely rational. Due to the accountability that constrains most B2B buyers, trust and security are key issues. No B2B buyer wants to risk his or her livelihood or reputation buying an unreliable product and service. This makes emotional issues such as trust and security absolutely critical. This in turn places great emphasis on resume for cowboy brand, reputation, case studies and other factors which convey reliability and consistency over the life of the product or service being purchased. 3) B2B Products Are Often More Complex. Just as the conclusion compare essay example decision making unit is often complex in great thesis business-to-business markets, so too are B2B products themselves. Conclusion For A! Where the resume for cowboy purchase of a consumer product requires little expertise (perhaps nothing more than a whim), the purchase of an industrial product frequently requires a qualified expert. Where consumer products are largely standardised, industrial products are often bespoke and require high levels of fine-tuning. Even relatively complex consumer products tend to be chosen on fairly simple criteria.
A car might be chosen because it goes fast and conclusion for a and contrast example looks nice, and a stereo might be purchased on the grounds that it is tremendously loud. Even simpler industrial products, on the other hand, frequently have to be integrated into phd thesis, wider systems and as a result have very specific requirements and need intimate, expert examination and modification. Conclusion And Contrast! It is classical art essay difficult to imagine a turbine manufacturer or commercial website design buyer having a look at three or four products and then choosing one simply because it looks nice. The choice of turbine will involve a whole host of technical, productivity and safety issues, whilst the choice of website might be based on its integration into a wider B2B marketing campaign, its interactivity with users and conclusion and contrast essay example the degree to which it draws potential clients via search engines. Buyers of consumer products are generally not interested in the technical details of what they are buying.
The vast majority of car buyers are far more interested in what speed the car will reach than in how it will reach that speed. Reflective! Similarly, the buyer of a chocolate bar is likely to be far more interested in and contrast essay the fact that the item stops them feeling hungry and tastes nice than in gatsby paper the technology and ingredients that make it so. As a result, consumer products are frequently marketed in ways that are superficial or even vacuous. Compare And Contrast Essay Example! Car manufacturers frequently completely ignore not only how a car performs, but often the fact that the car performs at all, and student reflective essays instead seek to apply non-physical attributes such as sex appeal to their products. Business-to-business campaigns, on the other hand, seek to compare essay example educate their target audience by providing specific factual information. A corporate vehicle fleet buyer is art essay unlikely to purchase a car for his salesforce on the basis of conclusion compare example its colour or sex appeal. Reflective! Many target companies in business-to-business campaigns are already well-informed on the product area, in which case promotional material may have to go as far as offering product specifications. What does this mean for the business-to-business marketer? The key for the B2B marketer is to be fully informed in relation to conclusion for a example the product or service being sold. Resume! This understanding must cover not only the ‘technical’ details of the offering, but also the extended offer including aftersales service, problem resolution, client management team, etc. As a result, the B2B sale is often a ‘technical sale’, meaning that salespeople in business-to-business markets are often extremely experienced and originate from a technical discipline within their organisation.
The success or otherwise of an conclusion for a and contrast essay example entire business-to-business product line can be largely dependent on the abilities of a small team of salespeople. System! 4) Limited Number Of Buying Units In B2B Markets. Almost all business-to-business markets exhibit a customer distribution that confirms the Pareto Principle or 80:20 rule. A small number of customers dominate the and contrast essay example sales ledger. Nor are we talking thousands and millions of customers. It is not unusual, even in the largest business-to-business companies, to have 100 or fewer customers that really make a difference to sales. Jobs! There is also a matter of scale.
In consumer markets there are reasonable limits to the amount that a single person can buy and use of any product. Certainly there are heavy users of all consumer products but the difference between the light user and the heavy user is a matter of small degree compared with the scale of differences in business-to-business markets. Conclusion For A Compare Essay Example! You can fit most buyers of consumer products into a “typical spend per month” with a few heavy spenders and a few light spenders at benefit of newspaper essay the extremes. The range of spend between the for a example largest and smallest buyer in a business-to-business universe is likely to be much, much larger than the range of spend between the largest and smallest buyers in consumer markets. Small numbers of customers of widely different sizes – and resume for cowboy the presence of a few key accounts – is a major distinguishing feature of business-to-business markets and this requires a completely different marketing approach to that required for consumer markets. What does this mean for the B2B marketer? Because such small numbers of conclusion compare essay example customers dominate the lives of businesses, database management is a crucial part of business-to-business marketing. Customer relationship management systems now allow databases to be kept up-to-date with personal details of members of the DMU together with every transactional and contact record. It is also critical that the business-to-business marketer be adept at key account management with all the manpower, proactivity and responsiveness that this entails. Key accounts not only require the product delivered to them when and in the quantities they need it; they also routinely require services such as swift problem resolution and technical advice.
Indeed, key business-to-business accounts are increasingly moving beyond requiring effective products and services and good prices; they are now looking for partnership . They are looking for suppliers that will hold stock on their behalf, provide technical consultancy, calculate product efficiency and added value, and offer long-term on-site support. Gatsby! Above all, the limited number of conclusion for a compare and contrast example buying units in business-to-business markets, and particularly the concentration of resume expenditure amongst a few of those buying units, presents both an opportunity and an expectation that the biggest spenders are provided with dedicated value-added services that reflect their importance to the supplier. For A Compare! If you don’t satisfy this expectation, someone else will! 5) B2B Markets Have Fewer Behavioural And Needs-Based Segments. Our experience of over 2,000 business-to-business studies shows that B2B markets typically have far fewer behavioural or needs-based segments than is the case with consumer markets. Whereas it is not uncommon for an FMCG market to boast 10, 12 or more segments, the classical art essay average business-to-business study typically produces 3 or 4. For A Compare And Contrast Essay! Part of the reason for this is the smaller target audience in great gatsby thesis business-to-business markets. In a consumer market with tens of thousands of potential customers, it is practical and economical to divide the market into 10 or 12 distinguishable segments, even if several of the segments are only separated by essay, small nuances of behaviour or need. This is essays patently not the case when the target audience consists of a couple of hundred business buyers. The main reason for the smaller number of segments, however, is simply that a business audience’s behaviour or needs vary less than that of a (less rational) consumer audience. Conclusion Compare Essay! Whims, insecurities, indulgences and so on benefit essay are far less likely to come to the buyer’s mind when the purchase is for a place of work rather than for oneself or a close family member. And the numerous colleagues that get involved in a B2B buying decision, and for a compare example the workplace norms established over time, filter out many of the extremes of behaviour that may otherwise manifest themselves if the over decision were left to one person with no accountability to others.
It is noticeable that the conclusion compare example behavioural and needs-based segments that emerge in business-to-business markets are frequently similar across different industries. Needs-based segments in a typical business-to business market often resemble the following: A price-focused segment, which has a transactional outlook to doing business and does not seek any ‘extras’. Companies in this segment are often small, working to low margins and reading essay regard the product/service in question as of low strategic importance to their business. A quality and brand-focused segment, which wants the best possible product and for a essay is prepared to pay for it. Companies in this segment often work to classical high margins, are medium-sized or large, and regard the product/service as of high strategic importance. A service-focused segment, which has high requirements in terms of product quality and range, but also in terms of aftersales, delivery, etc. Conclusion For A And Contrast Essay! These companies tend to work in time-critical industries and can be small, medium or large. They are usually purchasing relatively high volumes. A partnership-focused segment, usually consisting of key accounts, which seeks trust and reliability and system regards the conclusion compare example supplier as a strategic partner. Such companies tend to be large, operate on relatively high margins, and regard the product or service in question as strategically important. Student Reflective Essays! What does this mean for the business-to-business marketer?
The fact that business-to-business markets have relatively few segments makes the job of the B2B marketer easier than it might otherwise be. Nevertheless, skills in recognising which customers fit which segments, and how to appeal to each of these segments, are not easy to come by. Key challenges in conclusion for a and contrast essay establishing a behavioural or needs-based segmentation are as follows: Obtaining a consensus on gatsby thesis exactly what the segments are, and what characterises them, usually requires investment in conclusion for a compare example quantitative market research. Greek Art Essay! Once a segmentation has been achieved, identifying which companies are in which segment is extremely difficult. Behavioural and needs-based segments usually transcend ‘firmographic’ segments, meaning that there are often no immediately manifest indicators (such as country, industry sector) of the segment to which a company belongs. Training sales teams, marketing teams, customer relationship and other departments must implement the and contrast segmentation by adjusting their approach to often intangible criteria. Reflective! This requires huge effort and investment horizontally and vertically within an organisation.
Given the limited size of business-to-business target audiences, many marketers find the conclusion for a and contrast example most simple approach is to tier the target audience by size and split it by geography, with accounts receiving the reading attention they ‘deserve’ according to their strategic value to the supplier. 6) Personal Relationships Are More Important In B2B Markets. An important distinguishing feature of business-to-business markets is the importance of the for a and contrast personal relationship. A small customer base that buys regularly from the great business-to-business supplier is conclusion compare and contrast essay relatively easy to talk to. Sales and technical representatives visit the customers.
People are on first-name terms. Personal relationships and trust develop. Of Newspaper Reading Essay! It is conclusion compare essay example not unusual for a business-to-business supplier to have customers that have been loyal and phd thesis photovoltaic system committed for many years. The importance of personal relationships is particularly pronounced in emerging markets such as China and essay Russia, which have little culture of free information, historic quality problems with local suppliers, and – in markets where the concept of phd thesis photovoltaic branding is still emerging – little other than their trust in the salesperson on conclusion for a and contrast essay which they can judge the provenance of the product or service they are buying. What does this mean for great paper, the business-to-business marketer? The consequences of this emphasis on relationships for marketing budgets are a relatively high expenditure on people (sales and technical support) and conclusion for a compare and contrast essay example a more modest expenditure on other forms of promotion.
Advertising budgets for student reflective, business marketers are usually measured in thousands of pounds (or Euros or dollars) and not millions. For A! The B2B salesperson is also a different animal to the consumer salesperson, in that the focus is on listening and cultivating a limited number of relationships rather than the more quantity-driven and reading transactional approach seen in conclusion compare and contrast essay example consumer markets. This places emphasis on face-to-face contact and, as already mentioned, this salesperson must have an greek in-depth technical understanding of whatever he or she is conclusion for a compare example selling. Trade shows therefore become far more important in B2B markets – indeed, they are the number one promotional tool of American business-to-business companies ($17.3 billion per annum spent, Source: Business Marketing Association). 7) B2B Buyers Are Longer-Term Buyers. Resume! Whilst consumers do buy items such as houses and cars which are long-term purchases, these incidences are relatively rare. For A And Contrast Essay Example! Long-term purchases – or at least purchases which are expected to phd thesis system be repeated over a long period of time – are more common in business-to-business markets, where capital machinery, components and continually used consumables are prevalent. Compare! Furthermore, the long-term products and services required by businesses are more likely to require service back-up from the supplier than is the case in consumer markets.
A computer network, a new item of machinery, a photocopier or a fleet of vehicles usually require far more extensive aftersales service than a house or the single vehicle purchased by a consumer. Businesses’ repeat purchases (machine parts, office consumables, for example) will also require ongoing expertise and services in terms of delivery, implementation/installation advice, etc that are less likely to be demanded by consumers. Finally, business customers tend to be regarded as long-term customers more than consumers do for the simple reason that there are fewer business customers about, and the ones that do exist are more valuable! The benefits of retaining a B2B customer are often enormous, and the consequences of losing them very serious. What does this mean for the business-to-business marketer? The longer-term focus in business-to-business markets reiterates two key points for the B2B marketer to bear in mind: first the importance of relationship-building in business-to-business markets, particularly with key customers; and second the importance of a technically focused sales team.
8) B2B Markets Drive Innovation Less Than Consumer Markets. A look at the derived demand diagram (Figure 1) demonstrates that most innovation is driven by consumer markets. B2B companies that innovate usually do so as a response to an innovation that has already happened further upstream. B2C businesses tend to be less risk averse, as they have to predict and respond to the whims and irrational behaviour of benefit consumers rather than the more calculated decision-making of businesses. B2B companies have the comparative luxury of responding to trends rather than seeking to predict or even drive them. This is not to for a essay say, of course, that companies in B2B markets are ‘worse’ innovators than those in consumer markets. Gatsby Paper! Indeed, the opposite is repeatedly the conclusion and contrast example case, as innovations are often more carefully planned and classical art essay successfully commercialised in the B2B world, in for a and contrast example which audiences are more clearly defined and phd thesis system trends more easily identified. What does this mean for the business-to-business marketer? Business-to-business marketers have both the for a and contrast example time and the indicative data from upstream to carefully assess their options before making a decision. As competitors are in the same position, this makes gathering good quality intelligence absolutely critical. B2B marketers are advised to classical undertake detailed market research, combining this with upstream information in order to build up a complete market intelligence picture.
9) Consumer Markets Rely Far More On Packaging. There has been a huge growth in conclusion essay the packaging of consumer products in student recent years, as marketers seek not only to for a compare and contrast example protect and reading preserve their products, but also to use the packaging as a vehicle through which aspirations and desires are transmitted to the customer. Consumers being less rational than business-to-business buyers, this approach has proved enormously successful at compare adding perceived value to products. Technology! Adding value through packaging – making packaging a key part of the extended offer – is far more difficult to achieve in business-to-business markets, where product is judged primarily on technical criteria and conclusion for a compare the extended offer is built around relationships rather than dreams, aspirations or appearances. What does this mean for the business-to-business marketer? The implications for business-to-business marketers are clear – packaging, like product, plays a primarily functional role. Resources are far better directed towards developing relationships and resume for cowboy expertise. Conclusion For A Essay! 10) Sub-Brands Are Less Effective In B2B Markets. We have frequently argued that the most neglected B2B marketing opportunity is the building of a strong brand.
In a world where it is becoming increasingly difficult to distinguish one product from another, it is even more important to have the support of a powerful brand. The role of brand in the B2B buying decision is thought to classical greek art essay have increased over the past decade (it used to be said that its influence was 5% of the B2B buying decision against 30-40% of the consumer buying decision) and there is compare and contrast example plenty of scope for B2B companies to differentiate themselves further through effective branding strategies. It must be said, however, that B2B companies are generally far worse at both developing and implementing branding strategies than are B2C companies. B2B companies tend to be bad at recognising that branding strategy should envelop every customer touchpoint and aspect of the business – an paper unknowledgeable technical sales-team can undo the work of a branding communications campaign instantly. In their rush to embrace branding strategy, many B2B companies have over-compensated and developed huge numbers of sub-brands for every aspect of their product range. This kind of approach can be effective in conclusion for a example consumer markets, where diversified companies such as Unilever recognise the need to build relationships with segments and essays sub-segments of and contrast essay numerous target audiences.
In business-to-business markets, however, target audiences are smaller and as explained above place more emphasis on relationships than brand when it comes to making the purchase decision. Most importantly, business-to-business buyers are generally more informed than consumers and tend to regard multiple brands and sub-brands as pointless and confusing, perhaps even insulting. Essay! What does this mean for the business-to-business marketer? The key learning here for business-to-business marketers is to ensure that their branding strategies are properly researched and painstakingly implemented. Brand strategy research should encompass every customer touchpoint within the business, and conclusion for a example beyond, acting as a framework through which the company’s values are transmitted. Above all, business-to-business marketers should recognise that ‘less is more’ when it comes to branding – far better to have one coherent brand which customers, stakeholders and employees alike can relate to, rather than a confusing raft of reflective sub-brands, which hinder rather than promote meaningful choice and amount to little more than product identifiers. Conclusion: B2B Buyers Are More Demanding. The final distinguishing factor of B2B buyers is a suitable conclusion to conclusion essay this paper: simply that business-to-business buyers are more demanding . Resume! They have a responsibility to make the right decision when purchasing on behalf of their companies.
They take less risks and conclusion for a compare and contrast essay example therefore need quality to over be absolutely right. For A Compare And Contrast Essay! They have the phd thesis photovoltaic expertise to recognise a bad offering when they see one. They are used to getting what they want. Conclusion Compare Example! They are often paying more than they would as a consumer and photovoltaic system therefore expect more in conclusion for a compare and contrast essay example return. They are likely to regard themselves as interacting with the product or service supplied to them, rather than playing the role of passive recipient. What does this mean for student reflective, the business-to-business marketer?
The implications for and contrast, business-to-business marketers are clear. It is our job to meet the target audience’s needs; we must therefore raise our game to benefit of newspaper reading essay ensure that our product, services and intangibles meet and exceed customers’ requirements. In our favour is the fact that business-to-business buyers are more predictable than their consumer counterparts. This means that good quality market intelligence and close attention to and contrast essay our target markets’ needs place us in a strong position to meet the needs of the market. Phd Thesis! Readers of this white paper also viewed: Publications by Theme. Publications by Type. Speak to an expert. Read more about. Heathrow Airport Holdings Limited.
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Free Online Coaching Mentoring Training | businessballs.com. Coaching - life coaching and personal coaching. Life coaching tips for business coaching, personal coaching - techniques for coaching success, performance, career and life-change. Coaching - life coaching and personal coaching. Table of contents. life coaching and personal coaching  life coaching tips for business coaching, personal coaching - techniques for coaching success, performance, career and life-change. Personal coaching - or 'life coaching' as it is commonly described and promoted - is a quite recent area of learning and and contrast essay example development. Life coaching can be effective in many situations, for example in helping a person's career direction and development, or for personal fulfillment or life change more generally. Life coaching, or becoming a personal coach is also a career opportunity in gatsby thesis itself that interests many people from compare and contrast, a wide variety of backgrounds. In recent years a big industry has grown under the heading of 'life coaching'. For this reason the term 'life coaching' appears widely in related marketing and publicity, which can create a perception that 'life coaching' is in some way quite different from other forms of personal coaching.
In fact the term 'personal coaching' can be equally descriptive of what 'life coaching' entails: many personal coaches have capabilities which match those of 'life coaches', and many clients of resume, personal coaches experience exactly the same coaching effects as in the 'life coaching' industry. Accordingly, thoughout this article, the terms 'life coaching' and 'personal coaching' are inter-changeable, and mean the same. Life coaching/personal coaching is interesting from the conclusion essay example standpoint of being coached , and also becoming a coach . This article aims to cover both angles. life coaching/personal coaching definitions and features. Life coaching and personal coaching are interchangeable terms - they mean the same. Life coaching aims to draws out a person's potential rather than puts in aims and knowledge from outside.
It develops rather than imposes. It reflects rather than directs. Effective life coaching or personal coaching is a form of change facilitation - it enables people, rather than trains them. Life coaching is reactive and flexible - it allows for personal transition on an individual basis . Coaching of this sort makes no assumptions - it's not judgmental, nor is it prescriptive or instructional. Empathy is central to the coaching process. Good personal coaching seeks to help the other person's understanding of himself or herself. Life coaching is photovoltaic system, rather like a brand or label of the life coaching industry, but it potentially covers virtually every aspect of personal development that an individual might aspire to - for career direction and development, management, executive and leadership, business start-up and entrepreneurialism, life skills, personal fulfilment, life-balance, and the aquisition of specific skills or knowledge. Life coaching can be this adaptable because it is not concerned with delivery and specilaised training - it focuses on enablement and reflection, so that the conclusion example individual decides and discovers their required progression themselves. purposes of life coaching and personal coaching. People use life coaches and personal coaches for various reasons, for resume for cowboy, example: Coaching is about getting the very best out of someone and enabling them to make decisions that will improve their life.
Coaches are hired for very many different and diverse reasons, for example: to climb the career ladder faster; to feel more fulfilled at work; to improve relationships with family and partners; to learn parenting skills that benefit both the child and conclusion for a compare essay example parent; to great gatsby, gain a spiritual meaning to life, or a desire to 'get sorted'. The profession is growing and coaching is conclusion example, becoming widely acknowledged also because people realise just how effective coaching is. Coaching is classical greek, a relatively new and different profession - different to conclusion for a and contrast essay, psychology, counselling or therapy. The big difference between coaching and taking essay these professions is that coaching doesn't claim to have the answers. Essay! A coach's job is not to go over old ground, be past-orientated or to force-feed information, but to essay, work with clients to help them find the answers themselves . Also, when a person experiences being coached, their motivation comes from conclusion and contrast essay, working with a coach who is him/herself an upbeat, positive role model. In this way coaching is for cowboy, a unique way of developing people. Coaches agree that helping clients to reach their full potential through this approach produces great satisfaction. Many people enter the essay life coaching profession having been coached first, enjoying and benefiting from the experience, and feeling inspired to help others in student reflective a similar manner. Life coaching offers a potentially rewarding additional or alternative career to people of all sorts. Whatever the reasons for people deciding to work with coaches; whatever the type of coaching given, and whatever results clients seek from coaching, a common feature in all coaching relationship is that coaching is a two-way process . The two-way partnership is a main attraction for conclusion for a, people to coaching.
Both coach and client benefit. Personal development for the coach is a huge aspect of learning coaching and all coaches find that they themselves grow yourself, before starting to help others to do the same. An excellent coach finds out great paper, new things about themselves and is on a continuous learning journey. Indeed, becoming a coach means a lifelong quest for personal excellence. For many this quest is the motivation to become a coach in the first place. Helping clients discover where they want to conclusion essay, go and helping them to get there is now a proven methodology, which is fuelling the increasing popularity of professional coaching. Significantly, good coaches are never motivated entirely by money. The very nature of coaching means that it's a profession that is centered around 'making a difference' and helping people.
Focusing mainly on making money generally leads to a lack of gatsby thesis, concern for the client, with the result that the client exits the relationship, not surprisingly. Happily, coaches who enter the profession chiefly for financial gain leave coaching quickly - which helps to maintain the integrity of the coaching professional reputation. Common factors and reasons for coaches entering the for a compare essay profession: they like people and want to bring out the best in them they want to do something more fulfilling in their lives they want personal and financial freedom their family, friends and student colleagues previously turned to them for advice and help - they have natural 'people' skills. Coaching entails helping yourself grow and become more self aware, at the same time, helping others to for a compare and contrast essay example, overcome problems in their lives. how life coaching and personal coaching typically operates. Interestingly, most life coaching and personal coaching is conducted on the telephone.
Many coaches never actually meet their clients. For several reasons coaching is just as effective over the telephone as it is reflective essays, face-to-face. In fact, many clients prefer to conclusion for a essay example, speak over the telephone. This makes the jobs essay process very convenient for both coach and client, and compare essay it offers greater flexibility for people with a busy lifestyle. Coaching using the telephone offers other obvious advantages: coaching can be conducted wherever coach and client happen to be - anywhere in technology over jobs the world there's no travelling time or cost involved since little preparation needs to be done, telephone coaching sessions can be arranged with minimum prior notice coaches do not need offices, meeting rooms, staff or other expensive overheads. A coaching session is typically thirty minutes and compare example rarely longer than an hour. life coaching and personal coaching profession attractions. Being self-employed has its advantages in any area of business. Having the luxury to choose the hours you work, where you work and how much to charge for reflective essays, your service is a huge motivation for anyone considering joining the profession. Coaches can choose how many clients they want - one client, or twenty. And there are no overheads involved - working from home is a big incentive for people who want to enter the coaching profession.
The flexibility of the conclusion essay example coaching role, along with the rewarding aspects of the job, is student, likely to example, ensure that coaching and the number of practising coaches grows considerably in coming years. Coaching, as well as being hugely satisfying, a means of reading essay, personal development and very flexible, is also financially rewarding. Compare Essay Example! Clients value and benefit reading essay benefit from the support and conclusion for a compare essay are therefore happy to pay for it. Coaches are attracted into the profession because it gives them: accelerated personal growth and photovoltaic system understanding of self a lifelong journey of personal excellence and knowledge the conclusion ability to enhance any job-role in any organization and industry - coaching brings out the best in people and motivates them to be the very best in resume whatever they do - in all manner of jobs and careers more options in conclusion for a compare and contrast essay example life - important and rare choices of when to work and with whom a right and good purpose and resume meaning in life, measured in real value terms of effort and reward, not lost in and contrast essay example a corporate fog. Little can compare to resume for cowboy, really making a difference in another person's life. The ability to help people make lasting, positive changes in their lives is very special. Good coaches have this very special ability, and it is therefore no wonder that people are attracted to conclusion example, the coaching role.
Typical motivations for becoming a coach are explained in this example: It's a wonderful experience when a client makes a breakthrough, has a 'light bulb moment' and takes action on for cowboy, something they have been putting off for and contrast essay, a long time. It's a fantastic feeling for both me and them. System! (Pam Lidford, a UK-based qualified coach and trainer) challenges coaches face and how coaching overcomes them. On a day-to-day basis, coaches face many challenges. Coaching is an compare essay ongoing process, a method of continuous development and a significant learning experience for coaches and clients, so it's important to learn from 'mistakes' The key to this is realising that these aren't 'mistakes' or failings in resume for cowboy the first place. What many people regard as mistakes are lessons, experiences, and opportunities to learn and develop.
Cherie Carter-Scott in her book 'If Life Is Game, These Are The Rules' has some helpful things to say about mistakes and learning. So does Don Miguel Ruiz in for a compare example his book 'The Four Agreements'. Of Newspaper! See also the compare inspirational quotes, many of which help to approach mistakes and learning experiences positively. Perhaps one of the most powerful examples is What does not kill us makes us stronger. (attributed to Friedrich Nietzsche, based on his words: Out of life's school of war: What does not destroy me, makes me stronger. from The Twilight of the Idols, 1899). A coach must demonstrate resourcefulness and help people to see that if they think they have failed in the past, this bears no bearing to reflective essays, what they can do in the future. John Cassidy-Rice is conclusion for a compare and contrast essay, a qualified coach who has been working in personal development for many years. He explains typical challenges that coaches can face: Failure is only measured by time. Technology Taking Essay! If you look at the bigger picture, it's the and contrast 'failures' in our life that can actually turn out to benefit of newspaper reading essay, be our greatest successes. What we learn from failure is invaluable. Conclusion And Contrast! To give an example, when a football team loses an important match, they may regard themselves as failures; it's a natural thought process to go through.
However, if they take it one match at a time, and photovoltaic look at where they went wrong in conclusion and contrast example the game, and indeed, how they can improve for paper, the next one, it means that these mistakes won't be made again - and for a and contrast example they'll be successful in the future games they play. Benefit Of Newspaper! It can be a challenge to remove the 'failure' thought from clients. And showing them that it doesn't mean they can't achieve success in the future. Listening skills, and resisting the urge to give advice are key attributes and methods of conclusion compare and contrast, successful coaching, and central to truly helping people find their own direction and solutions. Listening is the most important ability and behaviour of greek art essay, a coach. This takes patience, tolerance and practice, especially in order to develop real empathic listening techniques. See the section on empathy, which explains more about the different types of conclusion compare and contrast, listening. Communicating fully and expertly is a quality that most good coaches will possess. Many coaches draw on the techniques and principles of Neuro-Linguistic Programming to assimilate and master these important communicating capabilities. Understanding the client's needs is also pivotal to the coach-client relationship, and for cowboy a prerequisite for avoiding difficulties in the relationship and coaching support process. It is essential that coaches coach and do not give advice.
There's a huge difference between coaching and advising: Coaching is centred around the client; whereas advising tends to be based on the beliefs, values and opinions of the advisor. In this respect a coach is most certainly not an advisor. The coach's role, and the coaching concept, is to help the other person find their own solutions, not to have them follow an advisor's recommendations or suggestions. Conclusion Compare And Contrast Essay! This is gatsby thesis, a fundamental principle. Often a coach's first experience of coaching or their first client will be someone already known to the coach. Many other coaching relationships will result from recommendations or referrals by clients' or from past clients. Integrity and trust are significant factors in successful coaching relationships, so it is logical that personal referrals and and contrast essay introductions are at the start of many coach-client relationships. It is a fact that most coaches are recommended by phd thesis photovoltaic system, existing or past clients.
Aside from conclusion for a, this, coaches can and do market their services like any other professional provider, using a variety of appropriate methods, including internet websites, directories, brochures and leaflets. Many coaches offer free trial sessions. Publicity from various media also helps to spread the technology taking over jobs word, and promote the reputations and availability of many coaches. Conclusion For A And Contrast Example! Coaching is very a popular subject and so practising personal coaches and life coaches can receive a lot of press and media interest. Great! Coaches are seen by the public as having special skills that not everyone has - so it's not unusual to and contrast example, see coaches being interviewed on local radio or asked for their advice in newspaper articles, etc. coaching and the role of the coach - future development. The reputation of coaching is growing along with the use of the concept - and coaching is becoming increasingly associated with modern recognised requirements for greek, success in life, work, business and organizations, notably the qualities of compare and contrast essay example, excellence, integrity, humanity and facilitative learning (as distinct from traditional 'training')
As previously stated, coaching is increasingly sub-dividing into specialist and new applications. There is already a considerable coaching presence and technology taking over jobs essay influence in conclusion for a example the following areas: spiritual coaching parent coaching corporate coaching financial coaching business coaching. In the future coaching is likely to incorporate and attract skills, resources and system new coaches from many different areas, such as: teaching, human resources, training, healthcare and conclusion and contrast nursing, the armed forces, the police, counselling and therapy, etc. Scientific research will improve cognisance throughout the profession, the processes performed and the reputation of coaches themselves. We will progressively understand more about why coaching works so well, and more about reading human behaviour and human response in the coaching context. There will be a clearer definition, understanding and acceptance of life coaching and personal coaching, and compare example its role in helping people to reach their goals.
Just as coaching is not the same as advising, so neither is coaching the same as consultancy. Coaching and consultancy are two very different disciplines, with different methods and aims. Significantly, a consultant is a specialist in gatsby his or her field; whereas a coach is a specialist in coaching , and need not be a specialist in conclusion for a any other field. That is phd thesis system, not to say coaches do not benefit from having expertise in a particular field, in fact approaching coaching from a particular expertise or niche is becoming more prevalent among newly-trained coaches. There will always be a demand for good coaches. Conclusion For A! And because coaching skills are so transferable, the essay coaching capability is hugely valuable for all sorts of other jobs and roles. coaching - a career, or a new skill to augment existing career. The very nature of conclusion for a compare essay example, coaching means that coaches will recommend it as a career.
Coaches are passionate about what they do and want to 'spread the word' about the benefits of coaching from both the coach's and the client's perspective. Most coaches would recommend a career in coaching without a moment's hesitation. Classical Greek! Helping people to for a compare essay, be the very best they can be, touching people's lives, as well as guiding them to reflective essays, help them reach their goals provides immense job satisfaction. Coaching is a relatively young skill and service area and yet in recent years its growth is only exceeded by for a and contrast, that of IT. It is likely that demand for coaching will not be met by the available supply of coaches for many years. Compare this with management consultancy, which has been established as a service area for many decades, and is relatively well-supplied with management consultants. Compared to established professional services, such as management consultancy, training, accountancy, legal services, etc., coaching is a much newer discipline.
Coaching is fast growing and still relatively under-supplied, which is why many people are attracted to learn how to coach, either to become coaching professionals, or to add coaching skills to their existing role capabilities. People seeking new career direction, or seeking to greek, add new skills to an existing professional service capability are increasingly turning to conclusion compare example, coaching. qualities required for resume, good coaching. Coaching is unlike training, consultancy, advising, or providing a professional service in for a example which work is completed on behalf of a client. The qualities required for good coaching are different to those found in these other other disciplines too: In coaching, listening is more important than talking. By listening, people can be helped to overcome their fears, be offered complete objectivity and given undivided attention and unparalleled support.
This leads to the intuitive questioning that allows the client to explore what is going on for themselves. Coaching is a two-way process. While listening is crucial, so is being able to interpret and reflect back, in ways that remove barriers, pre-conceptions, bias, and taking over jobs essay negativity. Communicating well enables trust and meaningful understanding on both sides. Coaches are able to communicate feeling and meaning, as well as content - there is a huge difference. Communicating with no personal agenda, and without judging or influencing, are essential aspects of the communicating process, especially when dealing with people's personal anxieties, hopes and dreams. Good coaching uses communication not to give the client the answers, but to help the clients find their answers for themselves.
A coach's ability to build rapport with people is and contrast essay, vital. Normally such an ability stems from a desire to help people, which all coaches tend to possess. Rapport-building is made far easier in coaching compared to other services because the coach's only focus is the client. When a coach supports a person in this way it quite naturally accelerates the rapport-building process. Coaches motivate and inspire people. This ability to do this lies within us all. It is borne of a desire to help and support. People who feel ready to help others are normally able to motivate and inspire. Technology Taking Essay! When someone receives attention and personal investment from a coach towards their well-being and development, such as happens in compare example the coaching relationship, this is in itself very motivational and inspirational.
curiosity, flexibility and courage. Coaching patterns vary; people's needs are different, circumstances and timings are unpredictable, so coaching relationships do not follow a single set formula. Remembering that everyone is photovoltaic, different and has different needs is an essential part of being a coach. Ultimately, everyone is human - so coaches take human emotions and feelings into account. And coaching is client-led - which means that these emotions have to be tapped into from the very beginning of the coaching process. So, having the flexibility to react to people's differences, along with the curiosity and interest to understand fundamental issues in people's lives, are also crucial in coaching.
The coach's curiosity enables the conclusion for a and contrast essay example client's journey to be full and far-reaching; both coach and student reflective client are often surprised at for a compare example, how expectations are exceeded, and how much people grow. All this does take some courage - coaches generally have a strong belief in themselves, a strong determination to do the best they can for their clients, and a belief, or faith that inherently people are capable of technology over jobs essay, reaching goals themselves. Typically good coaches will use and follow these principles: Listening is more important than talking What motivates people must be understood Everyone is for a example, capable of achieving more A person's past is no indication of their future People's beliefs about what is essays, possible for themselves are their only conclusion essay limits A coach must always provide full support Coaches don't provide the answers Coaching does not include criticizing people All coaching is completely confidential Some people's needs cannot be met by coaching , and coaches recognise clients with these needs. life coaches come from all backgrounds. Life coaches and personal coaches come from all kinds of backgrounds and professions. Not surprisingly, coaches tend to classical greek art essay, like people, and conclusion for a compare essay example many coaches come from 'people' and 'caring' professions. Coaches come from backgrounds as varied as these, and technology over the list is certainly not exhaustive: Teaching Nursing Management Consulting Prison Service Therapy Counselling Training Complementary Therapies Human Resources Personal Trainers Voluntary workers Charity workers Armed forces Emergency services Service industries. And many people on conclusion essay example, business, institutions, management, and organisations of all sorts learn how to become coaches so as to enrich their existing roles with the very special skills, methodologies and philosophies that coaching entails.
becoming a coach fosters the coach's own personal growth. Becoming a professional personal coach is student reflective essays, a significant way to develop experience, character, humanity, and to add a rewarding new perspective to for a compare, one's own journey in life. Typically, seeking a new outlook on great paper, life, a willingness to learn, and a passion for helping other people are the first steps in the process towards becoming a coach. Learning to coach others generally involves a lot of learning about oneself. Coaches almost always find that they have had to explore and for a compare resolve a number of new personal issues themselves, before they are ready to reflective, begin helping others to to do the same. Some of this experience can be surprising; it can also be a little scary, but it is conclusion for a essay, usually ultimately rewarding. This makes becoming a coach a very deep, valuable and meaningful experience.
Learning to be a coach is a serious step and photovoltaic system a serious commitment. It involves changing and conclusion essay setting new personal goals, way beyond learning a new skill set and student if applicable beginning a new career. There are a number of routes for for a compare and contrast example, coaching learning, and various organizations who provide it. Accreditation and standardisation of coaching skills and qualifications are increasingly becoming formalised, all over the world, although because coaching is still in relative infancy, there is some way to go before these standards reach international harmonisation and uniformity. If you are interested in learning more for yourself, or for taking jobs, your organization, a good place to start is UK-based The Coaching Academy, whose contribution of the for a and contrast essay technical content of this coaching guide article is gratefully acknowledged. The Coaching Academy specialises in the training of coaches throughout the UK, Europe and the rest of the world, and is the longest established company of this type in the UK. It is a trusted name in coaching with approaching 7,000 members, making it one of the largest coaching organizations anywhere.
In the UK you can phone them on 0800 783 4823. Or email firstname.lastname@example.org. life coaching as part of an technology jobs integrated approach to organizational development. Life coaching and personal coaching skills, methodologies and and contrast essay principles offer a radically new perspective to organizations looking for effective and innovative training and development solutions for their people, managers and executives. The nature of life coaching as a learning and development model enables a different and effective approach to developing traditional 'intangibles' - for example positive behaviour, integrity, humanity, ethics, mentoring, culture, emotional maturity, etc - which are so vital for successful performance of modern organizations.
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Analytical Essay on The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison. The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison is a novel set in Lorain, Ohio, in conclusion for a compare essay 1941. Technology Taking Over Essay. It depicts life at that time as experienced by the 11-year-old Pecola Breedlove and is narrated by the eight year old Claudia MacTeer. The book is divided into the four seasons in for a compare and contrast its telling of the story. In my opinion, the most important theme in The Bluest Eye is society’s image of ideal beauty. Need essay sample on Analytical Essay on The Bluest Eye by student reflective, Toni Morrison ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for compare and contrast example, only $12.90/page. This theme is prevalent and recurs throughout the book. It is seen in the repeated reference to phd thesis photovoltaic, models of white culture; the conclusion and contrast essay, Shirley Temple cups, Mary Jane candy, the blue-eyed, yellow-haired, pink-skinned doll and the excerpts from the Dick and Jane reader primer which server as chapter headings. Classical Greek Art Essay. Pecola is the daughter and second child of Pauline and Cholly Breedlove. Pecola’s elder sibling, Sammy, keeps running away from home and essay example there is tension in the family on account of the fact that Mrs. Breedlove is the breadwinner rather than Cholly.
Cholly often comes home drunk and he and his wife end up getting into violent quarrels. Pecola prays for her eyes to student, turn blue so that she will be beautiful and, by extension, loved. She is constantly filled with a sense of worthlessness at the situation at home and example the many other problems she has. To the town people, Maureen Peal, a middle class half-caste is considered a dream child because of her completion and hair texture. There is essays reference to this standard of beauty as questioned by essay example, Maureen when she asks her sister Frieda: “If she was cute – and if anything could be believed, she was – then we were not.
And what did it mean? We were lesser. Nicer, brighter, but still lesser#8221;. They wonder; #8220;What was the secret? What did we lack? Why was it important? And so what?#8221;(90) Pauline, Pecola’s mother, has also bought in to this measure of worth. She loses herself in movies, watching the films starring the benefit of newspaper reading essay, likes of conclusion compare, Greta Garbo, Ginger Rogers and Jean Harlow. “She was never able, after her education in the movies, to essays, look at and contrast essay a face and not assign it some category in the scale of absolute beauty, and the scale was one she absorbed in full from the silver screen” (144). She even goes as far as to copy Jean Harlow’s hairstyle in attempt to be as close to this model of perfection as she can get.
She names her daughter after the pretty daughter in the picture show Imitation of Life. She is partially responsible for Pecola’s sense of self-worth. For she readily admits (if only to herself, but surely her actions must have depicted the same) of Pecola “ But I knowed she was ugly. Technology Taking Essay. Head full of pretty hair; but Lord she was ugly.” (148) The white household Pauline works for conclusion compare, regards her as the ideal female servant and she tends to gravitate more to her employers family rather than hers in a bid for acceptability. She also considers the white houses she sees in the movies as another standard of beauty and begins to system, find everything in her home decor wanting. Previously a house-proud housewife, she loses interest in her home and lets her home fall into disarray: #8220;Soon she stopped trying to conclusion for a essay example, keep her own house.
The things she could afford to buy did not last, had no beauty or style, and were absorbed by the dingy storefront.#8221; (150) She starts comparing her zinc tub to her employer#8217;s porcelain one, her #8220;flaky, stiff, grayish towels#8221; to their #8220;fluffy white#8221; ones. (150) She has failed to consider that she does not have the economic muscle to over jobs essay, match such superior possessions. She builds a self-image based on her decor. Having to go through life with the weight of this assessment, Pecola continuously encounters negative validation in the way others respond to her; Mr. Yacobowski, the for a and contrast example, shopkeeper, who cannot or will not see her. “She looks up at him and sees a vacuum where curiosity ought to lodge. Greek Art Essay. And something more.
The total absence of conclusion compare essay, human recognition – the glazed separateness.” (59) And she accounts for it by her skin colour “And it is the blackness that accounts for, that creates, the vacuum edged with distaste in white eyes.”(59, 60) Pecola’s attempt to mold herself in an image that she thinks will be more acceptable to society was the photovoltaic system, beginning of her steady decline. When she is raped and impregnated by her father, Cholly, she turns, with even more conviction, to West Indian fortune-teller Soaphead Church (who is conclusion essay example also a pedophile). Technology Taking Jobs Essay. He deceives her by telling her she will get her wish once she does his bidding and compare and contrast example unknowingly kills a dog that he dislikes. Jobs Essay. After the dog dies, she retreats to the relative safety of madness where, finally, she is for a and contrast example a reflection of the surrounding iconographic images, repeatedly asks her imaginary other if her eyes are #8220;the bluest.#8221; In clear contrast to Pecola’s view that white was beautiful and black was ugly, Claudia had a deep rooted sense of self that acknowledged that while the people around her bought into this concept, she could defy the reflective, aesthetic. One could say this was borne out of the almost imperceptible thread that still connects the MacTeers to their heritage and the insulation of their children from imminent threat (as was the for a compare and contrast essay, case when Mr. Henry attempted to molest Claudia). We may very well conclude that such images may continue to dominate the cultural climate. However, where the great thesis, family unit is strong and united, our sense of identity will be intact.
Toni Morrison, The Bluest Eye, GK Hall and Chivers Press, 1999.
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combat medic resume For the References cited in footnotes, click here. The question of women soldiers has generated substantial historical research, but of mixed quality. This paper -- from a chapter of War and conclusion compare and contrast essay example, Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and resume for cowboy, Vice Versa (Cambridge, 2001) -- comprehensively reviews the historical performance of for a and contrast, women combatants in student, war, across history and cultures. Women's participation in combat, although rare, demonstrates potential capability roughly equal to men's – though women on average may fight less well than men. Women have proven to for a compare essay be capable fighters in female combat units, in mixed-gender units, as individuals in groups of men, and as leaders of resume, male armies.
Notably, the 19th-century Dahomey Kingdom and the Soviet Union in WWII both mobilized substantial numbers of women combatants, and thereby clearly increased their military effectiveness. Yet these successes were not copied elsewhere. Domestic political structures and ideologies appear central to the Dahomey and Soviet deployments of women soldiers. These factors may explain why so few states employ women combatants despite states' recurring need to conclusion for a compare and contrast example maximize military capabilities. The question of women combatants has generated substantial historical research in recent years, sparked by feminist scholarship#146;s interest in student reflective, uncovering the previously ignored roles of women in social and political history. For A And Contrast Essay Example. Several accounts chronicle the role of individual women soldiers in a variety of technology taking essay, societies and time periods. Historian Linda Grant De Pauw writes, #147;Women have always and conclusion compare essay, everywhere been inextricably involved in resume for cowboy, war, [but] hidden from history#133;. Conclusion. During wars, women are ubiquitous and taking over jobs essay, highly visible; when wars are over conclusion essay and the war songs are sung, women disappear.#148; 1. Unfortunately, several recent overviews mix well-documented cases with legends, so the subject requires some sorting out. In particular, John Laffin#146;s 1967 Women in technology taking over, Battle contains almost no documentation, and the caveat that the stories therein were #147;difficult to acquire and even more difficult to verify.#148; (Laffin#146;s own opinion is that a #147;woman#146;s place should be in the bed and not the battlefield.#148;) Yet Laffin#146;s stories turn up as fact in Jessica Amanda Salmonson#146;s 1991 Encyclopedia of Amazons #150; a confusing mix of for a and contrast example, historical and mythical cases #150; and David Jones#146;s 1997 Women Warriors , among others.
Linda Grant De Pauw is more reliable and greek art essay, provides good documentation on US and European history, despite accepting too uncritically some unsupported claims concerning prehistory, anthropology, and non-Western countries. De Pauw groups women#146;s roles in war into four categories: (1) the classic roles of victim and of instigator; (2) combat support roles; (3) #147;virago#148; roles that perform masculine functions without changing feminine appearance (such as warrior queens, women members of home militias, or all-female combat units); and (4) warrior roles in which women become like men, often changing clothing and other gender markers. 2. The evidence on women soldiers and that on conclusion for a and contrast essay example women political leaders in wartime seems to support liberal feminists; women can perform these roles effectively. I review women#146;s participation in essay, each of several settings in conclusion for a compare and contrast example, turn #150; female combat units, mixed-gender units, individual women in art essay, groups of men, and women military leaders of conclusion for a and contrast essay, male armies. Is it workable to organize sizable military combat units with only female participants? The answer is essay a qualified yes #150; it has been tried only a handful of times in all of history, but the results show the compare essay example, possibility of for cowboy, success, defined as strengthening the military#146;s effectiveness in war. These cases, although few, demonstrate the possibility of effective women combatants. Dahomey in the slave-trading era. The eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Dahomey Kingdom of West Africa (present-day Benin) is the only documented case of for a and contrast example, a large-scale female combat unit that functioned over a long period as part of a standing army.
The Dahomey Kingdom arose in the late sixteenth century when an aggressive clan conquered its neighbors and technology taking over, expanded its territory. The economy of Dahomey was fundamentally based on the slave trade #150; go to conclusion compare and contrast war against neighboring societies to capture slaves; trade the slaves to Europeans for guns; use the guns to go to war. Interwoven with these wars were extreme acts of large-scale human sacrifice, torture, and reading essay, cannibalism, practiced on prisoners captured in for a, war. Dahomey was one of the most successful military organizations ever in its region, and phd thesis, was rightly feared by its neighbors. It grew up with the slave trade #150; which expanded after 1670 and eventually exported 2 million people from the conclusion for a compare and contrast, area #150; and ended when France conquered it in photovoltaic system, 1892, at the end of the slaving era. The kings of Dahomey enjoyed showing off the Amazon corps to visiting Europeans (Dahomey#146;s slave-export customers) who were always interested in the phenomenon, and thus we have direct reports from conclusion and contrast English visitors in 1793, 1847, and 1851. Reflective. Stanley Alpern has documented the conclusion for a compare and contrast essay example, case well. 3. The #147;Amazon corps#148; appears to have originated in 1727 when Dahomey faced a grave military situation. King Agadja armed a regiment of females at the rear, apparently just to make his forces appear larger, and discovered that they actually fought well.
Subsequently, the king organized the Amazon corps as a kind of palace guard. The corps#146; size, which varied over time and is in jobs, some dispute, apparently ranged from about 800 women early in the nineteenth century to over 5,000 at the mid-century peak, several thousand being combat forces. Women comprised a substantial minority of the Dahomean army, varying from conclusion essay example under one-tenth to over one-third of the total. Some of the women were native-born, while others were captured in war and showed surprising loyalty. In one instance, a girl who had been captured young and raised in Dahomey was recaptured while fighting in benefit essay, the Amazon corps but refused to go back to her parents, insisting on returning to Dahomey instead.
4. The women soldiers were armed with muskets and swords. They drilled regularly and resembled the men in conclusion and contrast example, dress and activities (see Figure 2.1). Resume For Cowboy. They stayed in top physical condition and were fast and strong. In the for a compare, field, the Amazon corps carried mats and bedding on their heads, along with powder, shot, and great thesis paper, food for a week or two. Some writers describe the conclusion for a and contrast example, women as rather large and strong. However, this physique is common to the other countries of West Africa, none of which used women as soldiers. 5. Figure 2.1 Dahomean Amazon, as drawn by English visitor, 1850. [Forbes 1851, plate 2. Paper. Smithsonian Institution Libraries. Conclusion For A Compare Example. © Frank Cass #038; Co.]
The women showed at least as much courage as the reflective essays, men #150; more, by conclusion compare and contrast example several accounts #150; and had a reputation for cruelty. Phd Thesis. There was no known case of conclusion and contrast essay example, women warriors fleeing combat, although men often did so. One European observer concluded that, #147;if undertaking a campaign, I should prefer the females to the male soldiers.#148; 6. The women of the Amazon corps said: #147;We are men, not women!#133; Our nature is changed.#148; They dressed, ate, and behaved as the men did. The Amazon corps members were technically married to student essays the King (but did not have sex with him), were extremely loyal to him, and were forbidden to conclusion compare essay have sex with men (at the risk of taking over essay, death for both, although some observers thought the rule was frequently broken anyway). Several thousand lived in conclusion, the palace, along with civilian wives (perhaps 2,000 of them) and female slaves. Jobs Essay. According to one report, female prostitutes were employed in the palace to serve the for a compare, Amazon corps, although this is great gatsby thesis paper unclear. The Amazon corps was totally segregated from men. Outside the palace, its approach was announced by conclusion example a ringing bell.
Everyone had to turn their backs, and benefit of newspaper, males had to move away. Conclusion For A Compare And Contrast Essay Example. 7. The Dahomean army was not primarily female. Great Gatsby Thesis. Males were counted and mobilized first, then females were counted, and military service was required of men but voluntary for women. A village could send women in conclusion for a compare essay, place of men who did not want to serve. The army was divided into two parts, the left and the right, and each was in turn divided into a male and female component #150; a division which somewhat reflected the organization of Dahomey political administration. 8. Although not in the majority, the women soldiers played a key role in the Dahomey army, and performed admirably in student essays, combat. In a battle in 1840, an enemy force routed the conclusion compare and contrast essay, male Dahomean soldiers and only a rally of the Amazon corps prevented disaster.
Using female soldiers had some drawbacks, however. In 1851, 10,000 males and 6,000 females faced 15,000 defenders in great thesis, a neighboring society. The defenders were #147;infuriated#148; by the discovery #150; as they were preparing to castrate a prisoner of war #150; that some of the Dahomean soldiers were women. They redoubled their efforts, with their own women acting as supply troops, and essay, repulsed the Dahomey attack with 2,000 to 3,000 Dahomey killed. In 1890#150;92, France conquered Dahomey, but it required several bloody attempts (showing that Dahomey was the strongest military power in West Africa at the time). In the first major battle, in 1890, Dahomey women soldiers took part and several were found dead on technology taking jobs essay the battlefield, to the surprise of the French soldiers.
In a later battle, the French commander noted that the Amazon corps, about 2,000 strong, led the attack in the presence of the king and showed remarkable speed and boldness. 9. Dahomey probably turned to women soldiers in for a compare and contrast, part because, unlike its neighbors, it faced a severe military manpower shortage for three reasons. It was exceptionally warlike and gatsby thesis paper, lost men in war. It depended on a slave trade that gave preference to selling off able-bodied men. And it faced a hostile neighbor ten times larger than itself. Firearms had only recently been introduced to conclusion for a compare example the region, but this does not explain the Amazons (by equalizing men#146;s and classical greek, women#146;s strength) as Marvin Harris claims. Although muskets were basic weapons, they were crude and often ineffective.
A machete-like sword was decisive. Women effectively used this and a variety of conclusion and contrast essay, weapons including daggers, bayonets, battle-axes, bows and arrows, clubs, and a giant folding razor (with a blade over 2 feet long) apparently used mainly for decapitation but possibly for castrating enemies as well. 10. Dahomey is a critical case because it shows that women can be physically and emotionally capable of participating in war on a large-scale, long-term, and photovoltaic, well-organized basis. For A Compare Example. Far from being weakened by resume the participation of women, the army of Dahomey was clearly strengthened. Women soldiers helped make Dahomey the preeminent regional military power that it became in the nineteenth century. Yet Dahomey is virtually the only case of conclusion for a and contrast example, its kind.
The puzzle is why this successful case was not emulated elsewhere. 11. The Soviet Union in gatsby thesis paper, World War II. Among modern great-power armies, the conclusion for a essay, most substantial participation of women in combat has occurred in over jobs essay, the Soviet Union during World War II. Compare And Contrast. Following a rapid, forced industrialization of the Soviet economy in the 1930s under Stalin, in which women were drawn into nontraditional labor roles, the phd thesis photovoltaic system, Soviet Union faced a dire emergency when it was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1941. Over the next three years, the essay, Soviets would count tens of millions of war dead, and large parts of their country would be left in ruins. In this extreme situation, the Soviet Union mobilized every possible resource for the war effort, eventually including women for combat duty. In the first year of the war, women were mobilized into industrial and other support tasks, not into the military.
These tasks included those women were already doing #150; they were already 40 percent of the industrial labor force at phd thesis, the outset #150; as well as new occupations that had been all male, such as mining. Women also dug trenches and built fortifications for the Soviet military. 12. Beginning in 1942, faced with manpower shortages, the Soviet Union drafted into the military childless women not already employed in war work. By 1943 women reached their peak level of participation throughout the Soviet military. And Contrast Essay. Their main areas of involvement were in medical specialties (especially nursing) #150; these were often front-line positions #150; and antiaircraft units which #147;became virtually a feminized military specialty.#148; 13. Clearly, hundreds of taking jobs, thousands of women participated in the Soviet military during World War II. However, sources #147;are distressingly vague#148; on the actual number. The official figures state that about 800,000 women participated in the Red Army and about another 200,000 in partisan (irregular) forces. These figures put women at about 8 percent of overall forces (with 12 million men).
Of the total of conclusion essay example, 800,000, about student 500,000 reportedly served at the front, and about 250,000 received military training in Komsomol schools. Most were in their late teens. For A Essay Example. 14. All the information regarding Soviet women#146;s participation in World War II comes to us through #147;a mass of hyperbolic and resume for cowboy, patriotic press accounts and memoirs.#148; Playing up the contributions of women helped the conclusion for a and contrast example, formidable Soviet propaganda machine to raise morale in for cowboy, a dispirited population, and spur greater sacrifices by for a essay the male soldiers. These data problems mean that we should treat both quantitative data and particular heroic narratives with a certain skepticism. Taking Over Jobs. The #147;majority of women did not serve in direct combat.#148; 15. Despite all that, clearly women participated on a substantial scale #150; hundreds of and contrast essay example, thousands of individuals, a nontrivial minority of the total forces. Even if we reduce the extent and heroism of female participation from the official version, we are left with an important historic case of large-scale women#146;s participation in combat #150; probably the art essay, largest such case in compare, modern history.
The overriding impression left by paper the case is that women performed a very wide range of combat tasks and #147;proved themselves#148; in those tasks, eventually gaining the #147;acceptance and even admiration#148; of for a essay, Soviet military men who had been #147;initially skeptical or hostile.#148; I will summarize each of the main areas in which women took part, in rough order of the importance of female participation to technology taking jobs that area #150; front-line medical support, antiaircraft, combat aviation, partisan forces, infantry, and armor. 16. Medical support tasks in the Soviet military were integrated with combat to an unusual degree. Doctors and nurses served at the front lines under intense fire. All nurses and over 40 percent of doctors in the Soviet military were women. Many of the heroic stories about compare essay example these women #150; some of which appear to be true even if some are exaggerated #150; revolve around their actions in phd thesis, dragging and carrying wounded male soldiers to safety on the battlefield, sometimes by the dozen. In other cases, women medical soldiers joined and for a and contrast example, even commanded infantry units when the male ranks were decimated. Reportedly, Vera Krylova enlisted as a student nurse in 1941, was sent to the front, and classical art essay, dragged hundreds of wounded comrades to conclusion for a compare essay example safety under fire.
When her isolated unit was ambushed and its leaders killed, in the chaos of the German advance of August 1941, the wounded Krylova jumped on a horse, took command of the company, and led a two-week battle through encircling enemy forces to rejoin Russian forces. The next year, fighting with a different unit which was retreating from a tank battle, Krylova moved forward to great gatsby collect hand grenades from wounded comrades being left behind, then single-handedly charged the German tanks with grenades, slowing the advance enough for the Russians to evacuate their wounded. Conclusion. Such tales, although not verifiable in for cowboy, particular cases, reflect an overall reality #150; that many thousands of Soviet women served as front-line medical workers and some also participated directly (and effectively) in combat. 17. Antiaircraft units were staffed and commanded entirely by women #150; apparently hundreds of for a essay, thousands in all. (British forces in World War II included women in of newspaper essay, antiaircraft units but had men fire the guns. US home-territory antiaircraft defense, though not needed in the end, also relied on women.) One German pilot is quoted as saying that he would rather fly ten times over hostile Libya than #147;pass once through the for a compare essay example, fire of student reflective essays, Russian flak sent up by female gunners.#148; One reason cited for the women#146;s success was that, in these all-female military units, a #147;military female subculture#148; emerged which did its work in a warmer and more casual way than in men#146;s units. 18.
In the Soviet air force, three women#146;s regiments were formed #150; a small fraction of the total force but a useful test of all-female combat units. The women pilots were organized by for a essay example Marina Raskova, a kind of Amelia Earhart celebrity in the Soviet Union in the 1930s, who was flooded with offers by women pilots to essay volunteer in World War II. She convinced Stalin of their potential value in conclusion compare essay example, the war effort, and technology jobs essay, went on to organize the regiments and lead one of them until her death (at age 31) in a crash en route to their first deployment in 1943. For A Compare And Contrast Example. 19. The most famous was the of newspaper, 588th Night Bomber Air Regiment (46th Guards Bomber Regiment), sometimes called the #147;night witches.#148; It had over for a example 4,000 members, and at its peak carried out hundreds of sorties per night (officially, 24,000 missions in all). These pilots flew cheap, combustible biplanes (see Figure 2.2) #150; often unarmed, sometimes armed with a light machine-gun in back, to gatsby drop bombs on German positions at night (they could not have survived in daytime). They suffered substantial losses. Although the for a compare and contrast example, plane could land almost anywhere, the crew did not have parachutes, so a fire was often fatal.
At dusk the gatsby thesis, women would fly from a rear base to a temporary airfield near the conclusion for a compare essay example, front, then send one plane every three minutes out to and back from the target all night long, with each plane completing up to three missions in one night. The system provided the Germans with no rest at classical greek, night, but also let them anticipate the arrival of a plane and catch it in spotlights, making it an easy target. The pilots learned to slip-slide out of the conclusion for a compare, spotlights and make their bombing runs with engines turned off until after they had dropped their six to eight bombs. For Cowboy. Especially in winter, when nights were longest, #147;[t]he women #150; pilots and ground crews alike #150; lived on the verge of physical collapse, managing a bit of sleep or a meal whenever they could.#148; 20. Figure 2.2 Soviet night-bomber flown by women pilots, World War II. [Photo by Yevgeny Khaldei, courtesy of Anne Noggle.] The unit was the only truly all-female one #150; not only pilots and navigators but also most of the ground crew (e.g., mechanics and bomb-loaders) were women. (The other two regiments were commanded by males who replaced the original women leaders, when Raskova died and another commander was recalled for ill health. The appointment of male commanders seems to have been an expedient measure under time pressure to for a and contrast essay get the regiments into service.) The night bomber regiment was famous during the war, receiving extensive domestic and international press. A second bomber regiment undertook tactical missions, bombing and strafing enemy positions by day. Led by Raskova until her death, the regiment flew difficult, high-performance dive-bombers.
Some of the ground crew, and benefit of newspaper essay, some tail-gunners, were men, but all the pilots and conclusion for a example, navigators were women. Unlike the night bombers, this regiment received very little publicity during the war and reflective, operated under virtually the same conditions as the equivalent male bomber regiments. The commander said: #147;During the war there was no difference between this regiment and any male regiments. Conclusion For A Example. We lived in dugouts, as did the other regiments, and flew on the same missions, not more or less dangerous.#148; 21. The third regiment was an interceptor unit (the 586th). Also commanded by a man, it eventually incorporated a male squadron (ten planes) to join the two female squadrons.
Some of the ground crew were men, mainly because the sophisticated aircraft required skills beyond the rudimentary training of most women mechanics at phd thesis, that time. The regiment was assigned mostly to defense of compare and contrast, Soviet targets against German air attack. Its role was to drive away attacking planes rather than pursue them. Therefore it recorded relatively few #147;kills.#148; In one episode recounted first-hand, two women pilots of this regiment (in two planes) boldly attacked straight into the middle of 42 German bombers defended with machine guns, shooting down four and thesis, turning back the conclusion for a and contrast essay example, rest before being forced down. Reportedly, by the end of the war women (including those in mixed-gender units) made up 12 percent of the Soviet air fighter strength. 22.
Some individual women pilots also served in mostly male units. Raskova#146;s attempt to gather women aviators together did not entirely succeed. In 1942, eight women from the interceptor regiment were detached and assigned to male interceptor regiments to help in the Battle of greek, Stalingrad. In contrast to the defensive mission of the all-female interceptor regiment, these pilots aggressively sought out enemy planes. Conclusion And Contrast Essay Example. Two of these women became #147;aces,#148; each credited with about a dozen kills. One of technology over jobs, them, Lilya Litvyak, was known as the and contrast, #147;White Rose of Stalingrad.#148; In her perhaps-too-perfect story, the heroine starts as the #147;wingman#148; (supporting plane) to a male pilot, falls in love with him, is filled with fervor after his death, gets shot down multiple times, and essay, is ultimately ambushed by conclusion for a compare and contrast essay example eight German fighters at once, with her wreckage lost (it was reported found in 1989). 23. In the partisan forces #150; irregular guerrillas who operated in gatsby thesis, and around areas under German occupation #150; women played an important role, though not in all-female units.
By one estimate, about 27,000 women participated, making up over 8 percent of the total partisan forces (and 16 percent in conclusion example, the partisan stronghold of the Belorussian forests). The women performed various tasks, mostly #147;medical, communications, and domestic chores; but all were armed, and many fought.#148; The extent of women#146;s participation, and the degree of (#147;clearly romanticized#148;) gender equality within the partisans, seem to have varied from place to place. One woman planted a bomb that killed the German governor of Belorussia, but more typically women secretly distributed leaflets written by men. 24. No all-female infantry units were formed, but women served in integrated infantry units. Several hundred thousand received training in firing mortars, machine-guns, and rifles. A special school was established in 1943 which trained hundreds of women snipers. They #147;performed well#148; (except in throwing hand grenades and climbing trees).
One woman killed off an entire German company over 25 days, and classical, another was decorated for for a compare essay example, killing over 300 German soldiers. Although sniping takes place at a distance, it is a personalized form of killing. The sniper targets a specific individual, shoots, and sees that person fall. Judging from the extensive use of Soviet female snipers, some women are quite capable of such cold-blooded killing in war. 25. A few women participated in tank warfare, but seemingly not on phd thesis photovoltaic an organized basis. In one case, a woman commanded a tank and her husband served as driver and mechanic. In another famous case, a woman whose husband was killed in conclusion for a compare and contrast essay, action bought her own tank, named it the #147;Front-line Female Comrade,#148; and was killed in a tank battle. 26. Overall, in Soviet forces during World War II, #147;women proved of equal competence in those few moments when a fluid situation and the force of circumstances threw them into a central role.#148; They performed a wide variety of combat tasks effectively. It is difficult to discern the overall picture amidst the romantic propaganda, and the record is complex.
For example, German sources sometimes were contemptuous of over, Soviet women#146;s ability and willingness to compare and contrast essay fight, while at phd thesis photovoltaic system, other times they gave grudging respect to compare and contrast essay example Soviet women fighters they had faced. The Soviet Union, faced with a dire emergency, mobilized women extensively into military tasks for benefit, which the culture had afforded them little experience and few scripts to follow. Some of the women floundered (as did some men), but clearly many rose to the challenge. Conclusion For A And Contrast Example. In gender-integrated units, the women soldiers added to, more than they detracted from, combat effectiveness. This is why women kept being sent to those units. In all-female units such as the antiaircraft and combat aviation regiments, women performed their assigned tasks well. 27.
The Soviet case, thus, underscores the lesson of the Dahomey Kingdom, that women can be organized into reflective, effective large-scale military units. Compare. In neither case were women the technology taking, majority, but in both cases the mobilization of a substantial minority of conclusion compare and contrast essay example, women soldiers increased the state#146;s military power. However, the Soviet case also underscores how extreme the threat to reflective essays a society must be before it will use women in combat (see pp. 10#150;22). The Soviet Union of World War II #150; invaded, occupied, its cities decimated and conclusion for a essay, besieged, its people starving #150; still mobilized over 90 percent men. Its women soldiers were rarely assigned to ground combat roles and, like today#146;s American women soldiers, fought mainly when circumstances thrust them into the line of fire. The Soviet level of participation was probably exaggerated somewhat for propaganda purposes, possibly reducing the female share of Soviet forces from the official 8 percent. Even that level of participation occurred only in of newspaper essay, the Soviet Union, of all World War II belligerents #150; a society that preached (albeit, hardly practiced) gender equality, and which had already integrated women into compare example, many traditionally male industrial jobs. None of that takes away from the main conclusion of the case, however: women participated in combat in large numbers, and essays, their participation added to the Soviet Union#146;s military strength. Hundreds of thousands of women made good soldiers. Contrast with Nazi Germany Despite the cases of Dahomey and conclusion and contrast essay example, the Soviet Union, not every society obsessed with war, or even desperately fighting for its survival, allows women into combat.
For example, Germany in World War II contrasts with the Soviet Union. Germany#146;s position in technology over jobs, both World Wars would seem to favor reliance on women, since Germany faced chronic shortages of #147;manpower#148; (lacking, among other things, the colonial populations of Britain and France). In World War I, when the expected quick victory turned to protracted war, German women entered industrial jobs (about 700,000 in for a and contrast example, munitions industries by the end of the war), and technology taking essay, served as civilian employees in for a compare and contrast example, military jobs in rear areas (medical, clerical, and manual labor; women trained for jobs in great gatsby thesis paper, the signal corps late in the war but never deployed). German women won the vote after World War I, and some kept their jobs in industry. Essay Example. 28. However, the Nazi ideology promoted a gender division, with women assigned to the home and the production of German children, while the greek art essay, men engaged in politics and war. Therefore Germany went into World War II with a different gender ideology than the Soviet Union, one much less conducive to conclusion compare essay example the participation of women in great gatsby thesis paper, war. Compare Essay. Given a labor shortage, which became more severe during the war, Nazi Germany did draw on the work of women, but in ways that kept them away from combat, at least until the final collapse. Art Essay. At the outset of the war, women were employed (as during World War I) as civilians performing various tasks at military bases. However, these civilians were to be left behind when the forces deployed in wartime. 29.
The labor needs created by the war, especially as Germany found itself administering a large territory that it had rapidly conquered, led to the creation of conclusion compare essay example, a women#146;s Signal Auxiliary of radio and telephone operators (picking up from the underused World War I signal corps women). It had about 8,000 members in the second half of the war. A Staff Auxiliary allowed about taking jobs essay 12,000 women to carry out about one-third of the higher-level clerical jobs in rear areas throughout occupied Europe. The air force made most extensive use of women in an Auxiliary role #150; 100,000 by conclusion for a essay the end of the resume for cowboy, war. Conclusion For A Compare And Contrast Essay. Most performed clerical, communications, and weather-related tasks, but many worked in antiaircraft units #150; not working with guns but staffing searchlight batteries (15,000 women running 350 batteries) and similar functions. 30. All these uses of women by the Nazi military aimed to benefit of newspaper reading essay free men soldiers for combat while rigidly separating women from combat.
Even the women#146;s auxiliaries #150; who served in uniform, with rank, and under military discipline #150; #147;were neither trained in the use of arms nor were they allowed, under any conditions, to use them,#148; even as a last resort to for a and contrast example prevent capture. (In practice, however, these women sometimes took up arms as fronts collapsed. Phd Thesis System. Lacking official status as soldiers, they could be executed as guerrillas under international law if they fought.) German military leaders were #147;horrified#148; at conclusion compare and contrast, the Soviets#146; use of taking over, women soldiers, and resisted arming women even late in the war as manpower demands became extreme. In the compare and contrast essay, last months of the taking over essay, war, Hitler reluctantly authorized creation of an experimental women#146;s combat battalion, and later a mixed-gender guerrilla organization, but neither unit was deployed before the end of the war. 31. The key factors that apparently opened the door for Soviet women in combat were desperation, total militarization of society, and an ideology that promoted women#146;s participation outside of conclusion for a and contrast essay, traditional feminine roles. Classical. Nazi Germany was equally militarized, and compare example, eventually desperate, but had a radically different ideology that prohibited arming women. Several other historical cases show the potential to use women#146;s units in combat.
These cases generally are smaller scale and of shorter duration than the great, Dahomey and Soviet cases. Russia in World War I During World War I, some Russian women took part in combat even during the Czarist period. These women, motivated by a combination of patriotism and a desire to compare example escape a drab existence, mostly joined up dressed as men. A few, however, served openly as women. #147;The [Czarist] government had no consistent policy on female combatants.#148; Russia#146;s first woman aviator was turned down as a military pilot, and settled for driving and nursing. Another pilot was assigned to active duty, however.
32. The most famous women soldiers were the classical greek, #147;Battalion of Death.#148; Its leader, Maria Botchkareva, a 25-year-old peasant girl (with a history of example, abuse by men), began as an individual soldier in the Russian army. She managed (with the support of an for cowboy amused local commander) to get permission from the Czar to enlist as a regular soldier. Conclusion For A Compare And Contrast Essay Example. After fighting off the frequent sexual advances and ridicule of her male comrades, she eventually won their respect #150; especially after serving with them in battle. Botchkareva#146;s autobiography describes several horrendous battle scenes in which most of her fellow soldiers were killed running towards German machine-gun positions, and one in which she bayoneted a German soldier to death. After two different failed attacks, she spent many hours crawling under German fire to drag her wounded comrades back to safety, evidently saving hundreds of lives in the course of her service at the front. She was seriously wounded several times but always returned to her unit at the front after recuperating. Clearly a strong bond of comradery existed between her and the male soldiers of her unit. 33. After the February 1917 revolution, Alexander Kerensky as Minister of War in the provisional government allowed Botchkareva to organize a #147;Battalion of Death#148; composed of several hundred women. The history of classical greek, this battalion is a bit murky because both anti- and pro-Bolshevik writers used it to conclusion compare and contrast essay make political points. (By contrast, the earlier phase of Botchkareva#146;s military career is more credible.) Botchkareva#146;s own 1919 account was #147;set down#148; by a leading anti-Bolshevik exile in the United States, who says he listened to her stories in Russian over art essay several weeks and wrote them out simultaneously in English.
The narrative is just a bit too politically correct (for an anti-Bolshevik); the stories of her heroic deeds are a bit too consistently dramatic. The language and conclusion and contrast, analysis at times do not sound like the words of an illiterate peasant and soldier, and benefit, the book explicitly appeals for foreign help for Russian anti-Bolsheviks. (Louise Bryant#146;s pro conclusion for a and contrast example, -Bolshevik account is equally unconvincing.) 34. Botchkareva was aligned with Kornilov#146;s faction, which wanted to restore discipline in student, the army and resume the war against Germany, contrary to for a example the Bolshevik program of ending the war and carrying out immediate land reform and phd thesis, seizure of factories at home. During mid-1917, army units elected #147;committees#148; to discuss and conclusion for a compare essay, decide on the unit#146;s actions. Botchkareva insisted on traditional military rule from above in her battalion, and got away with it (though with only 300 of the original 2,000 women) because the unit was unique in the whole army. Reading Essay. This endeared Botchkareva to many army officers and compare essay example, anti-Bolsheviks. It also put her battalion at for cowboy, the center of the June 1917 offensive #150; she says that it was the only unit capable of taking offensive action. The battalion was formed in extraordinary circumstances, in response to conclusion for a and contrast essay example a breakdown of technology over jobs essay, morale and discipline in the Russian army after three horrible years of compare and contrast example, war and the fall of the student reflective essays, Czarist government. By her own account, Botchkareva conceived of the battalion as a way to shame the conclusion and contrast example, men into art essay, fighting (since nothing else was getting them to fight). She argued that #147;numbers were immaterial, that what was important was to shame the men and compare essay example, that a few women at one place could serve as an example to the entire front#133;.[T]he purpose of the plan would be to shame the men in the trenches by having the women go over the top first.#148; The battalion was thus exceptional and was essentially a propaganda tool.
As such it was heavily publicized: #147;Before I had time to realize it I was already in a photographer#146;s studio#133;. The following day this picture topped big posters pasted all over the city.#148; Bryant wrote in 1918: #147;No other feature of the great war ever caught the public fancy like the Death Battalion, composed of reflective, Russian women. I heard so much about compare essay them before I left America#133;.#148; 35. The battalion began with about 2,000 women volunteers and was given equipment, a headquarters, and benefit of newspaper, several dozen male officers as instructors. Botchkareva did not emphasize fighting strength but discipline (the purpose of the conclusion for a essay, women soldiers was sacrificial). Student Essays. Physical standards for enlistment were lower than for men. She told the women, #147;We are physically weak, but if we be strong morally and spiritually we will accomplish more than a large force.#148; She was preoccupied with upholding the moral standards and essay example, upright behavior of her #147;girls.#148; Mostly, she emphasized that the soldiers in her battalion would have to follow traditional military discipline, not elect committees to rule as the rest of the photovoltaic, army was doing. #147;I did not organize this Battalion to be like the rest of the army. We were to serve as an example, and conclusion compare, not merely to phd thesis photovoltaic system add a few babas [women] to the ineffective millions of soldiers now swarming over for a and contrast example Russia.#148; When most of the women rebelled against her harsh rule, Botchkareva stubbornly rejected pleas from Kerensky and others #150; including direct orders from military superiors #150; to allow formation of a committee. Instead she reorganized the classical greek, remaining 300 women who stayed loyal to her, and brought them to the front, fighting off repeated attacks by Bolsheviks along the way. The battalion had new uniforms, a full array of war equipment, and 18 men to serve them (two instructors, eight cooks, six drivers, and compare and contrast essay example, two shoemakers). Classical Art Essay. 36.
The battalion was to open the offensive which Kerensky ordered in June 1917. (Since the February revolution, there had been little fighting and growing fraternization on the Russian#150;German front.) The Bolsheviks opposed the offensive, and conclusion for a compare example, the tired, demoralized soldiers were not motivated to participate in it. By sending 300 women over the top first, Botchkareva envisioned triggering an reading essay advance along the entire front #150; 14 million Russian soldiers #150; propelled by the men#146;s shame at seeing #147;their sisters going into battle,#148; thus overcoming the men#146;s cowardice. When the appointed time for the attack came, however, the men on either side of the women#146;s battalion refused to move. The next day, about 100 male officers and 300 male soldiers who favored the offensive joined the ranks of the women#146;s battalion, and it was this mixed force of 700 that went over the top that night, hoping to goad the conclusion essay, men on either side into advancing too. Locally, the tactic worked, and great, the entire corps advanced and captured three German lines (the men stopping at and contrast, the second, however, to make immediate use of alcohol found there). As the Russian line spread thin, however, another corps which was supposed to move forward to relieve them refused to advance. A costly retreat to resume for cowboy the original lines ensued. The shame tactic had failed, except for a local effect, which anyway may have been caused as much by seeing comrades under fire as by feeling shame about women going first. Ultimately, Botchkareva concludes about the Russian army, #147;the men knew no shame.#148; 37. The battalion that actually fought on that day was rather different from the all-female unit first organized. The battalion arrived at conclusion and contrast essay example, the front with 300 women and two male instructors.
Before battle, it received 19 more male officers and instructors, and a male #147;battle adjutant#148; was selected. During final preparations, a #147;detachment of eight machine guns and a [male] crew to man them#148; were added. Lined up in the trenches for the first night#146;s offensive that did not materialize, six male officers were inserted at equal intervals, with Botchkareva herself at one end and her male adjutant in thesis, the center. In the for a compare and contrast essay example, force that actually went over the top the next night with 400 male soldiers and officers added, the #147;line was so arranged that men and women alternated, a girl being flanked by two men.#148; Botchkareva notes that in advancing under withering fire, #147;my brave girls [were] encouraged by the presence of men on their sides.#148; Although the women fighters clearly were brave, and one-third of them were killed or wounded, their effect (and indeed their purpose) lay not in their military value #150; 300 soldiers could hardly make a difference among millions #150; but in their propaganda value. Essay. However, this latter effect did not materialize as hoped. 38. Other women#146;s battalions were formed in several other cities #150; apparently less than 1,000 women in all #150; but they suffered from a variety of problems, ranging from poor discipline to a lack of conclusion for a, shoes and uniforms. These other units never saw combat.
There was not another offensive before the Bolsheviks took power in October and great gatsby, sent most of the women soldiers home, telling them #147;to put on female attire.#148; 39. The Battalion of Death, then, never tested an all-female unit#146;s effectiveness in combat. Nonetheless, on one day in 1917, 300 women did go over the top side by and contrast side with 400 male comrades, advanced, and overran German trenches. The women apparently were able to keep functioning in for cowboy, the heat of battle, and were able to adhere to military discipline. These women were, of course, an conclusion for a compare example elite sample of the most war-capable women in all of Russia. Nonetheless, they did it #150; advanced under fire, retreated under fire, and helped provide that crucial element of leadership by which other nearby units were spurred into action, overcoming the inertia of fatigue and committee rule. The Battalion of Death did this not as scattered individual women but as a coherent military unit of 300 women #150; instructed by phd thesis photovoltaic system Botchkareva that #147;they were no longer women, but soldiers.#148; 40.
Taiping Rebellion and for a essay example, other cases Very occasionally, all-female military units have cropped up elsewhere in the world for short periods of for cowboy, time. In the nineteenth-century Taiping Rebellion in China, the rebels formed and for a compare and contrast, then later disbanded female units in their army. These units did participate in battle but left little record of their combat effectiveness. The rebellion #150; a massive uprising led by a Christian cult leader, with roots in the Hakka ethnic group of southern China #150; became perhaps the classical greek art essay, bloodiest civil war in history (tens of millions killed). The rebels captured southern China and were then suppressed by the imperial government with the help of foreign mercenaries. The Taipings#146; puritanical religious doctrine called for rigid gender separation, with men#146;s and for a and contrast essay, women#146;s quarters in cities, and technology taking over jobs essay, even married couples faced execution if found together. This segregation was abandoned after several years owing to its bad effect on morale (especially since it had never been followed by top leaders). 41. Rumors of and contrast, female armies in ancient China are murky. I have been unable to find any historically documented cases. In times of siege, units of technology jobs, women, of for a compare and contrast example, children, and benefit reading, of old men were formed to for a compare and contrast example help with defense, but in phd thesis, support rather than combat roles.
The Cambridge History of conclusion for a compare essay, China makes a passing reference to China#146;s frontier region in the second century AD where #147;even Chinese women had been transformed into of newspaper, fierce warriors under the influence of the conclusion and contrast essay example, Ch#146;iang#148; ethnic group. The book#146;s description of the Ch#146;iang does not mention women fighters, however. The war participation of women in classical, second-century China, whatever its extent, appears to conclusion compare and contrast example reflect the Wild West character of the student reflective, region rather than the incorporation of women en masse in a regular army. 42. Several other historical cases reportedly provide evidence of all-female military units, but are poorly documented. In ancient India and conclusion essay, Persia (and several places in South Asia several centuries ago), female armed guards reportedly protected kings. Resume. A Chinese art historian states that the Hsi-hsia army #150; in a non-Chinese state northwest of the Song dynasty in the eleventh to thirteenth centuries #150; used female shock troops and had a tradition of female warriors going back hundreds of years. Reportedly, a female Danish unit fought against the Spanish army in the sixteenth century. A battalion of Montenegrin women reportedly took part in a 1858 battle with Turkey, as did Serbian women in the 1804 independence uprising. In the Congo in 1640, the Monomotapa confederacy supposedly had standing armies of women. The first army in and contrast essay example, postcolonial Malawi in resume for cowboy, 1964 reportedly included an elite unit of 5,000 women to guard the Tanganyikan border. (Shaka Zulu#146;s army by conclusion for a one erroneous account had an benefit essay all-female front-line regiment.
Scholarship on Shaka#146;s military tactics makes clear that all the soldiers were men.) 43. In addition to conclusion example the extremely rare cases of all-female military units, evidence of resume, women#146;s combat potentials appears in conclusion for a compare and contrast, cases where mixed-gender military units have engaged in combat. Although main combat-designated units are nearly always all-male, some units not designated primarily for combat have included women, in a variety of cultures and time periods. These units, trained in phd thesis photovoltaic, the use of for a and contrast example, arms, sometimes find themselves engaged in combat, with the women participating. We have evidence from guerrilla organizations, from the few NATO countries that currently allow women into combat positions, and for cowboy, from the present-day US experience with gender integration. Guerrilla warfare provides a rich source of data on mixed-gender combat units. Women fighters are not uncommon in guerrilla armies (see Figure 2.3). From the Cold War and post-Cold War eras alone, scholars have illuminated women#146;s crucial roles in conclusion for a and contrast essay, a variety of wars, including in Vietnam, South Africa, Argentina, Cyprus, Iran, Northern Ireland, Lebanon, Israel, Nicaragua, and others. 44.
Figure 2.3 Kurdish women guerrillas, 1991. [AP/Wide World Photos.] In World War II, in addition to the Soviet partisans (see pp. 000#150;000), women participated in the partisan forces of technology taking, other occupied countries as well #150; countries that did not allow women into conclusion compare essay example, regular military forces #150; including Italy, Greece, France, Poland, and system, Denmark. They took part in conclusion compare and contrast, street fighting, carried out student, assassinations, and example, performed intelligence missions. In Italy, reportedly 35,000 women were partisans, of whom 650 were killed. Over. In the French Resistance, women were much more excluded from combat roles (although they played many dangerous support roles). Only a few women were #147;full-time, gun-carrying women fighters.#148; Because of prejudice in and contrast essay, France against benefit reading women fighters, one of the few women who had a leadership position in combat often pretended to be a representative of a male leader when organizing the Resistance. For A And Contrast Example. Another was excluded from of newspaper reading participating in armed attacks because the conclusion compare essay example, uniformed army of de Gaulle opposed giving guns to women, even though local Resistance men considered her an equal comrade.
45. Most notable among the World War II women partisans were those of Yugoslavia, a country where centuries of classical greek, tradition allowed some role for women as fighters, and where conditions were nearly as desperate as in for a compare essay, the Soviet Union. Most women#146;s work in phd thesis, the mass resistance to Nazi occupation was in traditionally feminine support roles. Nonetheless, just over 10 percent of the soldiers in the National Liberation Army were women. Compare And Contrast. They received the greek, same kinds of minimal basic training as men (but first aid or medical training more often than men), and the official communist ideology declared them equivalent. In practice, women tended to remain at low ranks and to be concentrated in medical tasks. In one set of units studied, 42 percent of the women were #147;fighters#148; and 46 percent medics. #147;Clearly, the role of medic became #145;feminized#146;#133;[I]f there was a single woman in the [unit], she would be designated the medic.#148; Nonetheless, in guerrilla war even medics are usually fighters too. In one unit, casualty rates were roughly equivalent between medics and fighters. Compare And Contrast Essay. #147;Women partisans led the same life as men #150; they slept in the same quarters, ate the gatsby paper, same food, and wore the same clothes.#148; The partisan force #147;severely discouraged#148; sexual relations in the ranks, although arrangements were made for married couples. 46. Accounts of the effectiveness of the women soldiers, even taken in the same cautious vein as the Soviet case (with allowance for propaganda distortion), suggest that women made an important contribution overall.
By official count, 100,000 women were in the National Liberation Army and partisan units so thousands must have been fighters. For A Compare And Contrast Essay. Overall, women were killed at more than twice the rate of men (25 versus 11 percent). Despite the limits on their participation, the women of the Yugoslavian resistance acquitted themselves well in combat, showing above-average bravery and system, stamina. When World War II ended, newly communist Yugoslavia quickly barred women from military service (although both girls and conclusion example, boys still received arms training decades later). Student Reflective. 47. The Vietnamese communists#146; war against for a essay the French and Americans shares several features with the World War II Yugoslavia case #150; a communist-led #147;people#146;s war#148; in a country with some tradition of women warriors (see the benefit of newspaper reading essay, Trung sisters, p. 121). This tradition was updated, in the #147;war of liberation#148; (1946#150;75), to for a and contrast essay example the picture of a Vietcong woman with a baby in one arm and a rifle in the other. As in Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, the technology over, image of women fighters symbolized the mobilization of the entire society for the cause. Behind the image, propaganda aside, was a hard reality of women#146;s participation. One Vietnamese military historian estimates that 60,000 women were in conclusion compare and contrast essay, the regular forces, over 100,000 in the volunteer youth corps, and over student essays 1 million in militias and other local forces. In the People#146;s Liberation Armed Forces (PLAF) in the 1960s, a woman veteran of local uprisings was appointed deputy commander, and by one estimate 40 percent of all regimental commanders were women.
The women soldiers served in both all-female and for a compare example, mixed-gender units. Benefit Of Newspaper Reading. Reportedly, the conclusion compare and contrast essay example, latter experienced some problems regarding male attitudes, and the men often considered the student essays, women inferior in conclusion compare, combat. Thus, the PLAF increasingly directed women into separate areas of work, especially transport and espionage. 48. North Vietnamese women were mobilized into the war effort in the mid-1960s, for support tasks rather than combat. Even those within the phd thesis photovoltaic system, army itself mainly worked on medical, liaison, antiaircraft, or bomb-defusing tasks. Conclusion And Contrast Example. #147;It was general policy to great gatsby thesis discourage active combat for women.#148; Women did serve in local militia units in the North #150; working in the fields with rifles slung over their shoulders #150; but these areas were far from the compare example, #147;front.#148; Nonetheless women in the North played an important part in for cowboy, shooting down US airplanes and capturing pilots. For A And Contrast Essay. In the South, meanwhile, more women were recruited by the communist army, but mainly for support functions. Women did apparently participate in phd thesis system, combat during the 1968 Tet offensive. But as guerrilla war gave way to conventional war, women were separated more from combat. #147;In the end, the role of women in the Vietnamese revolution was a significant but somewhat restricted one.#148; (In the South Vietnamese government army, some women also fought.) 49.
Ideals of motherhood and compare and contrast example, feminine duty supported participation in the North Vietnamese war effort. Women participants in benefit of newspaper reading essay, the war effort experienced it not in terms of glorious exploits but as a huge added burden on an already full basket of #147;women#146;s work.#148; Women carried most of the loads along the Ho Chi Minh trail to sustain the war effort. Although they might take part in fighting, especially in for a compare and contrast example, antiaircraft defense of their home communities, women#146;s main function in the war was to provide cheap labor. Women#146;s combat participation, although glorified during the war as a model of self-sacrifice for the nation, was downplayed and largely forgotten after the gatsby, war, as in compare essay, other countries. 50. The image of the woman holding a rifle and a baby is found in liberation movements across the third world. It combines the roles of motherhood and war, harnessing women for great thesis paper, war without altering fundamental gender relations. Cynthia Enloe finds in the image an for a compare and contrast essay expectation that, after the war ends, mothers will put down the rifles while keeping the babies. She asks: #147;Where is the picture of the male guerrilla holding the rifle and baby?#148; 51. The Sandinistas of gatsby paper, Nicaragua resemble the other communist revolutionary guerrillas.
Women reportedly made up nearly one-third of the Sandinista front#146;s military. After victory, the front#146;s founder praised women for being #147;in the front line of battle.#148; Women were particularly attracted to the Sandinista front because, as a movement that grew up in a feminist era, the front had a strong women#146;s organization which advocated policies that helped women. Nonetheless, after victory, the #147;defense of women#146;s role in the military failed. After their victory in July 1979, most women were demobilized, and the rest were placed in all-female battalions.#148; The director of conclusion and contrast essay example, Nicaragua#146;s leading military school explained the phd thesis photovoltaic system, #147;need to train women separately#148; as being #147;not because of any limitations the women have. In fact, you might say it#146;s because of failings on the part of some men#133;.[who] aren#146;t always able to conclusion for a compare essay example relate to a woman as just another soldier.#148; However, apparently exceptions were made for women of superior military skill, who remained in their male army units. Women were not subject to the draft, although they still made up half of the militia units. 52. In some ways, the Sandinistas left traditional gender roles firmly in place.
Women were mobilized around the image of mothers protecting their children as part of a divine order. Reflective. One Sandinista official said in 1980, #147;give every woman a gun with which to conclusion for a example defend her children.#148; In fact, however, good mothers were expected to be #147;Patriotic Wombs#148; that would provide soldiers for the revolution and happily send them off to die for essays, the cause. The Sandinistas limited abortion and conclusion for a essay example, sterilization, among other measures to produce high birth rates, since a small nation at war needed more people. The FMLN guerrillas in next-door El Salvador in the 1980s also let women fight, but within a conceptual framework that upheld traditional gender roles. Cynthia Enloe highlights the story of a woman FMLN guerrilla in El Salvador who, with the end of the war there, is having her IUD removed #150; a transition from soldier to mother. 53. In Africa, women guerrillas also have fought and then been pushed aside. Student Essays. For example, Joice Nhongo was the #147;most famous#148; guerrilla in conclusion and contrast example, the ZANLA forces that overthrew white rule in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe). She was known as #147;Mrs. Phd Thesis. Spill-blood Nhongo,#148; and gave birth to a daughter at the camp she commanded, two days after an air raid against it. After ZANLA took power, she became Minister of Community Development and compare and contrast example, Women#146;s Affairs #150; safely removed from student military affairs. For A Essay. (Reportedly, 4,000 women combatants made up 6 percent of ZANLA forces.
54 ) In South Africa in the 1980s, the phd thesis, armed wing of the African National Congress included women guerrillas. Thandi Modise was called the #147;knitting needles guerrilla#148; because she carried a handbag with a protruding pair of knitting needles while traveling incognito. She reports that in training camps, the women (under 10 percent of the trainees) received the same uniforms and training, and were treated respectfully, as equals, by the men. She sees no contradiction in being a guerrilla and a mother, and argues that #147;Marriage and children are necessities, not luxuries.#148; Modise does, however, say that #147;As a woman I tried to conclusion and contrast example avoid killing people.#148; Although male and for cowboy, female guerrillas received the same training, side by for a and contrast example side, and women sometimes outdid men in discipline, sharpshooting, and running, women were excluded from traditional combat roles. As a male guerrilla put it, #147;Yes, a woman can be a soldier. Many women fight better than men. But I wouldn#146;t deploy women in the front line#133;. Men go to war to defend their women and children.#148; Manliness played an important role for South African black male guerrillas, and even Nelson Mandela once said that the student, #147;experience of military training made me a man.#148; 55. It is compare and contrast essay example not only in communist revolutionary movements, such as in resume for cowboy, Yugoslavia, Vietnam, and Nicaragua, that women participate in local militias.
This phenomenon is widespread, because militias often constitute a last line of conclusion compare example, defense of home and family against external attack. For example, during the US Civil War, one town in Georgia formed a female militia unit when the men were all away at war. They drilled, practiced shooting, and in an #147;apocryphal story#148; supposedly faced down Sherman#146;s cavalry which had planned to over jobs burn the town. Conclusion Compare And Contrast. 56. In Sri Lanka currently, women apparently constitute about one-third of the rebel Tamil Tigers#146; force of 15,000 fighters, and participate fully in both suicide bombings and massacres of civilians. The Sri Lankan military reportedly believes half of the core fighting force of for cowboy, 5,000 are women. (A claim that women are two-thirds of the force appears to be overstated.) 57. In Iraq in the late 1990s, one of the main guerrilla groups operating against next-door Iran #150; with 30,000 soldiers, Iraqi backing, and for a and contrast, $2 billion worth of weapons #150; is of newspaper led by a 43-year-old Iranian woman and her husband. She is the #147;symbol of the struggle#148; and their candidate for transitional President of Iran if they should ever seize power. Reportedly, the group is led by conclusion compare essay mainly female officers, and includes women among its fighters #150; although how many women is unclear. Members live in gender-segregated quarters and married couples suspend marriages to function as #147;sisters and student essays, brothers#148; in the group.
The force engaged in combat in 1988, and for a compare essay example, 1991, and reportedly performed well. 58. The greater fluidity of gender roles in guerrilla as compared with conventional war is illustrated by the Republic of Congo war in resume for cowboy, 1997. Guerrilla militias included women fighters and commanders. Some male combatants dressed as women, both to enhance their magical powers and to disguise themselves in battle. 59. These examples of and contrast essay, women in guerrilla warfare represent a fraction of the historical cases. In guerrilla war, by contrast with conventional war, women#146;s participation is not rare.
One often finds combat units with a nontrivial minority of women in the ranks. These women, when they have participated in combat during guerrilla wars, have done so with good results. They have added to the military strength of their units, and student reflective, sometimes fought with greater skill and bravery than their male comrades. Yet whenever their forces have seized power and for a compare and contrast essay example, become regular armies, women have been excluded from combat. Evidently, this exclusion is not based on art essay any lack of ability shown by the women soldiers when they participated in the guerrilla phase of war. 60. Present-day state armies. More than a dozen states #150; mostly industrialized countries that are US allies #150; currently allow women into conclusion and contrast essay example, official combat positions.
The exact number depends on student how exactly one defines combat. A 1993 list includes Canada, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, and Britain. A 1997 work also includes Spain and Australia, but not Britain. By 1999, in addition, France, Japan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Israel, and conclusion essay, Russia had at student reflective essays, least one woman fighter-jet pilot, and women served in navies in Portugal, South Africa, and others. Conclusion Compare And Contrast Essay Example. In 2000, an Israeli law and a German court ruling promised to reflective essays integrate women into conclusion compare, more military jobs, though implementation is unclear and ground combat will likely remain off-limits. 61. Eritrea and South Africa had women in the infantry, owing to the recent integration of reflective, former guerrilla forces into state armies there.
Eritrean women combatants have seen extensive combat #150; uniquely among present-day state armies #150; owing to the highly lethal ground war with Ethiopia in the late 1990s. Conclusion Essay. Some reports put women at phd thesis system, one-third of Eritrean combat forces. Eritrea, however, has existed as a state for only a few years, and is still led by former guerrilla commanders, even though fighting a conventional, not guerrilla, war. 62. Women#146;s status in conclusion and contrast example, NATO militaries is evolving year by year, with the policies and resume, numbers shifting continually towards greater women#146;s participation. The different countries are generally moving along a common path in for a compare essay, integrating women, though at different speeds #150; from combat aviation, to combat ships, to taking over jobs essay submarines, to ground combat.
At any point in time, far more women participate in air and sea combat than in ground combat. Conclusion For A And Contrast Essay. Women in all these positions total only a few thousand (out of millions of combat soldiers today), but they provide further data points to assess the performance of greek, women in conclusion compare essay example, combat. Also, other NATO countries such as Germany and Greece still completely exclude women from combat and generally limit their participation to traditional areas such as typing and nursing. Overall, women#146;s participation has been recent and the units in which they serve have seen little if any combat since being integrated. Women aviators did, however, participate in NATO#146;s 1999 air campaign against Serbia. 63. Canada is furthest along the spectrum of NATO countries. Benefit Of Newspaper Essay. Canada#146;s military has opened all positions to women, in theory. Furthermore, the military is actively recruiting women interested in serving in conclusion for a and contrast, ground combat positions.
New submarines are being built to accommodate women. Phd Thesis Photovoltaic System. Unfortunately we have scant information on compare and contrast example the results of this policy because it is so new. Resume. Canadian units have not seen combat since women joined them, although they have deployed on at least ten peacekeeping missions around the and contrast essay example, world. In the Gulf War, women served on a Canadian supply ship, but only 3 percent of benefit of newspaper reading, Canadian forces participating in that war were women, compared with over 10 percent in the Canadian military overall at that time. In January 1998, women made up 11 percent of conclusion essay, Canadian forces, though just over student reflective 1 percent of combat troops (165 women). Sexual harassment and rape are serious problems in for a compare essay example, the gender-integrated Canadian military, and thesis paper, female soldiers #147;are often little more than game for sexual predators,#148; according to one recent expose. An official army study in 1998 #147;said women in combat units commonly were referred to in coarse sexual terms.#148; 64.
Denmark, Norway, and France are nearly as gender-integrated as Canada. Danish women serve in tank crews, including those that were deployed for peacekeeping in for a compare and contrast example, Bosnia. (Although peacekeeping is not usually #147;combat,#148; Danish tanks had earlier battled Bosnian Serb forces.) Denmark#146;s decision to include women in taking jobs essay, all military roles resulted from extensive trials in the mid-1980s to for a and contrast essay find out how women performed in various land and sea combat roles. #147;The trials proved very satisfactory, and today all functions are open to women#133;. The trial results [show]#133;.that women can do the work just as well as their male colleagues.#148; 65. France allows women in air, sea, and ground combat, and plans to subject women to the draft starting in 2001. However, until recently France had quotas on the number of women in benefit reading essay, each position, with only for a and contrast a handful in ground combat. Women are still not allowed in the Foreign Legion, commando positions, or flying naval airplanes, although they no longer face quotas in reading essay, other positions including flying combat aircraft. As recently as 1994, NATO summarized France#146;s policies on conclusion compare and contrast example women in technology over jobs essay, combat thus: #147;A woman#146;s role is to give life and not death. For A Essay Example. For this reason alone it is student essays not desirable for mothers to take direct part in battle.#148; 66. In Norway, women serve on submarines, including one as a captain.
They are in infantry, artillery, tanks, and all kinds of aircraft. Two served as officers in the UN peacekeeping force in conclusion for a compare and contrast, the former Yugoslavia. None of the integrated units has seen combat. Belgium, the Netherlands, and Spain allow women in almost any position in theory, but only a few women serve in benefit of newspaper, practice, especially in for a essay example, ground combat. In the Netherlands, women can serve anywhere except in combat positions in the Marine Corps. The opening of positions to women in the Netherlands was driven in part by the abolition of the draft there. Phd Thesis Photovoltaic System. 67. Britain, Australia, and New Zealand allow women into air and sea positions. In 1999, Australia included submarines (which had been built to accommodate a mixed-gender crew). Women do not participate in ground combat, with two exceptions: Britain opened field artillery to women in 1998, and Australia has qualified three women as commandos. These forces have not yet participated in combat.
The British found in the 1982 Falklands War that it was hard to distinguish #147;combat#148; from #147;noncombat#148; ships, and this may explain why Britain has opened all surface ships to conclusion compare and contrast essay women (about 700 women serve on British ships currently). 68. The Israeli experience In Israel, the persistent myth that Israeli women participate in resume for cowboy, combat is false. Before the establishment of Israel in 1948, women did serve in the underground paramilitary forces, though even then they were often left behind for major operations. For A And Contrast. A few women also fought before the photovoltaic, 1948 war, when isolated settlements came under attack. With independence and the creation of a regular army, however, women were immediately and permanently excluded from conclusion for a compare and contrast example all combat roles. Of Newspaper Reading. Women do serve in the Israeli forces, and are even drafted (though less often than men). Subsequent reserve duty is lifelong for men, but only to age 24 or motherhood, whichever comes first, for women. Over half of female draftees serve in secretarial and clerical jobs.
A women#146;s corps (its initials spell #147;charm#148;) administers the policies concerning Israeli women soldiers, including training them, overseeing their work in various units, and for a compare, operating some of its own units. A 1980 women#146;s corps brochure states: #147;Today#146;s Israeli female soldiers are trim girls, clothed in uniforms which bring out their youthful#148; These women serve as #147;sister-figure#148; or #147;mother-figure#148; in a unit. Regular Israeli combat units often include a few women, who do administrative work. These assignments are #147;highly sought after#148; by women. But as soon as actual combat looms, the women are immediately evacuated from the unit. 69.
In the late 1970s, after the shock of the 1973 Yom Kippur War, and under great manpower pressures, the IDF opened up new nontraditional specialties to women, including instructing men on the use of arms. The 1980 brochure states that women serving as platoon sergeants in system, all-male basic training #147;have succeeded outstandingly.#148; The brochure continues: #147;New recruits do not dare complain of conclusion for a, muscle aches and pains or drop out of a long-distance run when it is being led by a female sergeant.#148; Women#146;s success as arms instructors shows that some women can wield weapons effectively #150; for example, driving tanks, firing guns, and deploying armed groups tactically. 70. The reasons given for the exclusion of women from combat in Israel revolve around their effects on technology taking essay male soldiers rather than their own combat abilities. For example, men in mixed units supposedly showed excessive concern for conclusion compare and contrast essay, the well-being of the women at the expense of the student reflective essays, mission. The actual evidence of conclusion for a compare example, such effects is very sketchy, however. 71. The US experience. The US military in recent years has compiled the most extensive experience in integrating women into regular military units #150; though generally not #147;combat#148; units.
As of 1999, nearly 200,000 women serve in the US military (14 percent of the total force), over resume 1 million are veterans, and thousands have operated in combat zones in several wars. (Currently, 45 percent of US military women are women of color, a greater proportion than in the population at large.) US women participate in conclusion for a, combat support roles, ranging from the great gatsby thesis paper, traditional (nursing, typing) to the nontraditional (mechanics, arms training). Compare And Contrast Example. Sometimes the lines between combat and support blur so that women soldiers have found themselves in a combat zone or engaged in fighting. 72. Historical context Women have, on occasion, participated in combat in the US military since its inception. In US colonial times, warfare among the English, French, and greek, native Americans was endemic. #147;For their own survival, colonial women learned to threaten force and to conclusion for a compare essay kill in self-defense. Even in the towns the respectable matrons could behave with a ferocity that would be thought shockingly improper if not impossible for females a generation later.#148; In several historically documented cases, in the countryside women killed American Indians and in towns mobs of phd thesis photovoltaic, women carried out lynchings. During the Revolution, in addition to and contrast their roles as camp followers and as soldiers disguised as men, American women fought in militias in the countryside. 73. In the Revolutionary War, #147;Molly Pitcher#148; is a legendary woman who accompanied her husband in the field #150; a common practice in armies of the time (see pp. 381#150;83).
She used to nurse wounded troops and benefit reading essay, carry water (hence her nickname). When her husband was killed in compare and contrast example, the Battle of student essays, Monmouth, she took over conclusion compare and contrast essay example firing his cannon #150; to the admiration of technology over jobs, her fellow soldiers #150; and in a dubious epilogue is said to have met George Washington. Conclusion Essay. (#147;Molly Pitcher#148; seems to benefit of newspaper essay be a composite of three real women who fought in the war.) In the Civil War, women fought on both sides, most of them disguised as men. 74. In World War I, 13,000 women enlisted in compare, the US Navy, mostly doing clerical work#150;#147;the first [women in US history]#133;.to be admitted to classical greek full military rank and status.#148; The Army hired women nurses and telephone operators to work overseas, but as civilian employees (although in uniform). Plans for conclusion for a essay, women#146;s auxiliary corps #150; to perform mostly clerical, supply, and communications work #150; were shot down by the War Department. For Cowboy. So were plans for commissioning women doctors in the Medical Corps. The end of the conclusion for a compare and contrast essay example, war brought an end to proposals to enlist women in the Army. 75. In the interwar years, the Army created a Director of Women#146;s Relations to reflective explain to women, now that they could vote, that pacifism was a bad idea.
The embattled Director in the 1920s, Anita Phipps, developed a plan for a women#146;s corps which would be part of the Army itself, not an Auxiliary, and would incorporate 170,000 women in for a and contrast essay, wartime. This plan was not approved, however. The Army favored keeping any future women workers in an Auxiliary. Even the auxiliary role was approved only because, as an technology jobs official memo put it in 1941, #147;it will tend to avert the pressure to admit women to actual membership in the Army.#148; The same memo declared that the War Department would develop the conclusion for a compare and contrast essay example, idea slowly and not rush into reading, it on conclusion for a and contrast essay a large scale. 76. The realities of World War II, however, quickly changed this approach. With the United States more deeply mobilized for war (and over a longer period) than in World War I, women#146;s participation in the military increased dramatically, to about 3 percent of US forces at student essays, the peak. The experience of World War II provides the largest amount of information on women soldiers up until the 1980s and 1990s. 77.
The Women#146;s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) was formed early in conclusion compare essay, 1942, soon after Pearl Harbor. In mid-1943 it became a regular part of the Army, as the Women#146;s Army Corps (WAC). For Cowboy. Within the US Army, the incorporation of compare and contrast, so many women was an unprecedented development. Technology Jobs. The WAC encountered serious obstacles in recruiting American women (discussed shortly), and it faced continual bureaucratic attacks from the War Department, the conclusion for a and contrast essay example, Surgeon General, and others. Mattie Treadwell#146;s 1954 history tells the story in detail. Benefit Essay. The WACs were never assigned to combat and rarely got near it. But their large-scale mobilization into the US Army some 65 years ago gives us valuable information about how women perform as soldiers, on conclusion compare some of the dimensions necessary for phd thesis system, a functional combat soldier. In performance of their duties the WACs showed as much diligence as men soldiers.
Health problems were no greater than for the men, though the particular types varied by conclusion example gender. The WACs lost less hospital time than men, and rates of classical greek art essay, accidents and nonbattle injuries were nearly identical across gender. But men were far more likely to be injured in conclusion and contrast, motor vehicle accidents, whereas women more often fell down in situations unrelated to their jobs #150; partly because suitable military shoes were not provided. Classical. Towards the end of the conclusion for a compare and contrast, war, fatigue became a serious problem for WACs, but its character was opposite to the combat fatigue endured by men #150; for technology, women, it was unrelieved sedentary work with little visible connection to the war effort. Combined with Army food, the sendentary work of conclusion compare essay example, WACs led to a #147;widespread condition of overweight.#148; 78.
The WAC found that menstruation presented only minor problems for efficiency, with most of those being caused by Army regulations that, for example, sent women to the hospital for great gatsby thesis, two days if their cramps made them stop work even just long enough for aspirin to take effect. Conclusion And Contrast. In the for cowboy, Army Air Forces, women who ferried planes were not supposed to fly for several days around their periods, but male commanders found this rule unenforceable since many women did not cooperate with it, said nothing, and for a compare and contrast example, just kept flying. (In the event of pregnancy, a WAC was immediately discharged and left to her own resources.) 79. In the resume, area of discipline, most of the problems resulted from the novelty of the situation #150; enforcement varied greatly from one locale to another #150; and from the men#146;s problems in for a example, dealing with women, such as having #147;great difficulty in punishing a woman for anything.#148; Gender differences in for cowboy, discipline may have resulted from the exclusion of compare, WACs from combat as well. As a 1946 Army field manual states, #147;the necessity for discipline is never fully comprehended by the soldier until he has undergone the experience of battle.#148; However, overall, morale and reflective essays, discipline were high among the women. And Contrast Essay. 80. With regard to their ability to function in a hierarchy (see pp.
206#150;8), WACs differed from their male counterparts. For Cowboy. Curiously, the main difference is opposite to the emphasis on essay example male autonomy and female connectedness discussed earlier (see pp. 46#150;47). The WAC Director specifically noted that #147;women need to remain individuals.#148; This high value on individuality, combined with a lack of experience with loyalty to organizations, made women tend to classical greek treat each other as separate individuals, contrary to the military style of hierarchy. If inspired by conclusion for a compare example a WAC leader who set an taking jobs essay example of loyalty to the Army, however, WACs#146; #147;natural idealism was apt to conclusion compare and contrast essay produce group loyalty and esprit of an unexcelled intensity.#148; 81. The WACs resented the #147;caste system#148; separating officers from enlisted personnel, since it restricted enlisted women#146;s contact with close friends or family members who were male officers. Resume For Cowboy. Within the WAC itself, however, few of the problems experienced in male#150;male relations across ranks developed. The officers of the WAC had risen recently from the ranks, and relations were generally close. The attributes that made for successful WAC leaders differed from conclusion for a compare essay those of male officers.
The most essential qualities for greek art essay, WAC leadership were fairness, unselfishness, and sincere concern for for a and contrast example, the troops. Selfish ambition, accepted in male officers, was #147;absolutely disqualifying#148; when leading WACs. Appearance and technical competence, emphasized in training male officers, did not matter for WAC officers. In terms of fitting the student essays, WAC into the larger male-dominated Army of which it was a part, few serious problems developed. For A Compare Essay. Minor problems included the need to revise expectations of norms and procedures when women were included. For example, a male officer invited newly arrived WAAC officers to his hotel room for drinks #150; an action that would have been quite appropriate for newly arrived male officers.
The one serious problem in local Army#150;WAC relations arose in those few cases where a male commander allowed romantic impulses #150; especially #147;immoral#148; ones #150; to affect military decisions (such as securing special privileges for one WAC). Such cases were viewed as #147;complete betrayal#148; by the rest of the WAC unit, and the unit#146;s effectiveness plummeted. Student. 82. WACs were often better than men at compare, communications and resume, clerical work, especially in listening to Morse code for long hours. For A Compare. On the other hand, WACs in the Pacific (where they needed armed escorts to protect them from sex-starved GIs) #147;became demoralized#148; by their mail censorship duties which required reading sexually explicit letters home to wives and girlfriends.
83. US women also served in the Air Force and Navy during World War II. The Women#146;s Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs) worked in essays, ferrying planes and as test pilots. For A Compare Essay. About 1,000 women took part, and 38 died in the line of duty (see Figure 2.4). The Navy WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service) participated in resume for cowboy, air traffic control, naval air navigation, and communications, starting in conclusion for a, 1942. There was a Marine Corps Women#146;s Reserve in both World Wars; 18 died in World War II. Resume For Cowboy. They became a permanent component of the conclusion for a compare and contrast essay, Marines, and their successors decades later are described as #147;even more gung ho than many of the males.#148; 84. Figure 2.4 USWASP pilots after flight in B-17. Essay. [US National Archives, 342-FH-4A5344-160449ac.] At its peak in 1945, the WAC had 100,000 members (at its inception the Army had hoped for 600,000). In all, during World War II, about 150,000 women served in the WAC, nearly 90,000 in the WAVES, about 25,000 in Marine reserves and Coast Guard SPARS, and 75,000 as officer-nurses. Total fatalities appear to be in the range of 200#150;300 women in all, but apparently few of these were by conclusion compare and contrast essay hostile fire.
85. Although soldiers and over jobs, officers who worked with US military women in compare, World War II adjusted to them and came to value their contributions, public opinion lagged behind. Essays. The WAC#146;s biggest problem was in recruiting, especially after a #147;slander campaign#148; against for a essay example it in 1943. The campaign promoted the idea that WACs were really prostitutes, or women with low morals. Leaders had to spend great energy trying to counteract this campaign both through public advertising and through attention to the women#146;s appearance (feminine uniforms) and their actual morals, which were generally upstanding. (In the British Army in World War I, officials omitted a breast pocket on women#146;s uniforms for fear of classical greek, drawing attention to female anatomy.) Despite efforts to counteract the slander campaign, a survey of Army men in 1945 found that about half thought it was bad for a girl#146;s reputation to for a compare and contrast be a WAC.
Some men also worried that women would become too powerful after returning to civilian life. Classical. 86. In recruiting women for the WAC, the Army used trial-and-error methods to stir interest. A major recruiting theme, #147;Release a Man for Combat,#148; was abandoned #150; but could never be fully suppressed in the public mind #150; when women responded poorly to conclusion compare example the notion that their participation could send an American man to his death. Later cheery themes, such as #147;I#146;m Having the Time of My Life,#148; were also unsuccessful. An all-out advertising and canvassing campaign in great gatsby, Cleveland in summer 1943 proved a total failure: personal contact with 73,000 families identified 8,000 eligible women, but brought only 168 recruits.
At that rate the conclusion for a compare and contrast essay, 100,000 new WACs needed immediately would require contacting 44 million families, more than the total US population. Waiving the requirement of high school graduation also produced few recruits. As a result of taking over essay, this failure to recruit an additional half-million WACs in 1943, the draft was extended to fathers of young families, even though a March 1944 US poll found that three-quarters of the public would rather draft young single women (for noncombat positions) than young fathers. 87. Demobilization of women received top priority at the end of the war, as in other wars. When the war ended, one Navy commander declared, #147;I want all the women off this base by noon.#148; After World War II the number of women in the US military dropped drastically, but never back to zero. The World War II experience remained a valuable benchmark of compare essay example, women#146;s potentials as soldiers, which informed the later integration of women in technology taking jobs essay, the US military. In the Korean and Vietnam wars, women#146;s service as nurses was notable. Recently, a memorial to women veterans has been completed at conclusion for a, Arlington National Cemetery, and the history of US women soldiers is becoming better known.
88. The large-scale integration of women into the peacetime US military began in the early 1970s, coinciding with the classical greek art essay, end of conscription after the conclusion example, Vietnam War and the switch to essay an all-volunteer army. Conclusion For A Essay. The number of great paper, women in conclusion for a example, the armed forces grew rapidly from greek art essay under 3 percent to over 8 percent in 1972#150;80, then more slowly but steadily, reaching 14 percent by 1999. (These levels compare with a peak of 3 percent in World War II and below 1.5 percent from conclusion and contrast example 1945 to 1968.) Top military leaders now describe women as essential to the operation of the US military. Given the ongoing integration of women into phd thesis photovoltaic system, previously closed positions, such as flying combat jets or commanding warships (the first took her frigate to the Persian Gulf in 2000), the data here for the late 1990s will change over time. 89.
The current US expansion of women in compare and contrast essay, the military comes in peacetime and has continued in phd thesis photovoltaic, a period of shrinkage of the US military (in the 1990s). Historically, around the world, women have been allowed into military service in significant numbers only in times of extreme need in war. For A. The current US integration reflects the professionalization and technical bureaucracy of the US military, in which being a soldier is #147;a job#148; and cost-conscious organizational managers realize that women#146;s labor is cheaper than men#146;s labor of greek art essay, equivalent quality. (Women are now paid the conclusion for a compare and contrast essay example, same as men in specific jobs, but women in the all-volunteer force bring with them higher average levels of resume for cowboy, education.) The expansion also reflects the greater acceptance of liberal feminism in the country#146;s cultural and political norms #150; women and conclusion for a compare and contrast essay, men should have similar rights in the workplace, and women can do #147;men#146;s#148; jobs. 90. In theory the expanded use of women in the US military maintains women#146;s exclusion from combat. Benefit Of Newspaper Reading. In practice, the lines between combat and support are not so clear-cut. A 1982 Army review noted: Currently, women are assigned to duty positions and conclusion compare essay, MOS [jobs] that require them to engage routinely in direct combat. Women may be found in every battlefield sector including forward of, alongside of, or interspersed with direct combat units#133;.[T]he modern battlefield [is] an gatsby extremely fluid environment where many soldiers, assigned to units located in rear areas, are required to perform duties in forward combat areas. For example, of the nearly 4,000 women then in the US Fifth Corps in essay, Europe, 900 would be located in combat areas if the essay, Corps participated in conclusion for a example, combat. Photovoltaic System. The blurred lines between combat and support sometimes were resolved with bureaucratic sleight of hand.
For example, air tanker missions that had previously been defined as combat (with appropriate medals afterwards) were redefined as noncombat in the 1986 air strikes against conclusion for a example Libya because women were participating. Classical Greek. 91. In the 1989 Panama invasion #150; at that time the largest US military action since Vietnam #150; women soldiers gained a new visibility. Almost 800 participated, constituting about 4 percent of the for a compare, total force. At least 150 were in combat areas, some coming under enemy fire and some returning fire. The female captain of a US military police unit, Linda Bray, became a celebrity after leading her unit in capturing a military dog kennel in greek, a half-hour firefight. The Pentagon first played up her story, which was receiving favorable media coverage and hence making the US Army look good.
However, when her story threatened to unleash political forces they did not want to face #150; pressures to lift the combat exclusion law for women #150; Pentagon officials reportedly leaked disinformation to undermine her account (which some media reports had in fact exaggerated). Bray faced persistent harassment after the episode, and left the for a compare and contrast, Army in essay, 1991. 92. In the Gulf War, nearly 40,000 US women participated #150; 6 percent of the US forces deployed (i.e., about half the proportion of example, women as the overall military had). About a dozen women soldiers died, of great thesis paper, whom five were killed by hostile forces. Despite Pentagon fears of conclusion and contrast essay example, a bad public reaction #150; there had been no women casualties in resume for cowboy, Panama #150; the deaths of women soldiers were taken in stride by the American public. 93. The issue that most worried top military officials #150; the capturing of US female POWs #150; also fizzled.
Two US women soldiers were taken prisoner by for a essay example Iraqi forces and benefit of newspaper essay, returned after the war #150; a truck driver who stumbled into Iraqi lines in an early battle and conclusion for a and contrast essay, a flight surgeon shot down on a helicopter trying to rescue a downed US pilot. Benefit Essay. They were the first US women POWs captured since World War II (when Japan held 88 and Germany one). The military leadership#146;s fears, in addition to the potentially explosive public reaction which could undermine support for the war effort, were that male POWs might be induced to conclusion for a essay example disclose information if women POWs with them were subjected to classical greek sexual abuse. These fears seem exaggerated, both because POWs have usually been (and were in conclusion for a and contrast example, Iraq) questioned and classical, tortured in isolation to maximize psychological pressure, and because women pilots were already making sure men understood that rape was no different from any other torture and that if men caved in when women were abused they would put the women at greater risk of essay, future abuse. Survival schools, which train pilots for their possible capture, had begun desensitizing men to great gatsby rape, and preparing women for sexual abuse as they did men for for a compare essay example, torture. In any event, neither female USPOW in the Gulf War had attended the survival training (several thousand women pilots had, but the POWs were not pilots). 94. In this case, Iraqi authorities made no attempt to exploit the US women#146;s gender. (The 1949 Geneva Conventions mandate treating women POWs #147;with all the regard due their sex.#148;) Once in custody of the government, the women were generally well treated whereas the men were tortured. Both women had trouble with low-level Iraqi soldiers while they were being transported in trucks after their capture, however. The doctor (whose arms were broken) was molested by one soldier and says she would have been raped if he had been able to get her flight suit off during the ride. The truck driver slapped away a soldier who touched her breast.
Neither case destroyed the morale of the technology jobs essay, POWs, male or female. Opponents of conclusion for a and contrast essay example, women in combat later used the episodes, nonetheless, to of newspaper underscore the conclusion for a compare and contrast essay example, dangers to women soldiers. Even more than earlier wars, the technology jobs essay, Gulf War made it hard for the US military to maintain the distinction between combat and noncombat. In the compare essay example, Gulf War, more than half the 375 US soldiers killed were support personnel, not #147;combat#148; troops. The Pentagon followed the rule (as in Panama) that if a soldier was female she must not have been in combat and could not receive combat medals (which are highly valued in classical greek art essay, military culture).
For example, the female doctor POW (Rhonda Cornum; see p. 41) received no medal for her rescue mission although all the other surviving crew members in her helicopter were decorated with a Distinguished Flying Cross. Conclusion And Contrast. Similarly, the gatsby, Pentagon would not designate the US truck driver a POW when she was captured, and compare example, listed her simply as #147;missing.#148; They persisted even though her truck had been last seen stuck off the road with Iraqi soldiers running up to it, and later was found without the two drivers, and even though US pilots over Baghdad later spotted her in a prison compound. When she was released after the war and appeared on TV wearing a yellow uniform stamped #147;PW,#148; her father called a Pentagon official at phd thesis system, 3 a.m. and conclusion for a and contrast example, said, #147;Now, you asshole, will you declare her a prisoner of war?#148; 95. Overall, the Gulf War was a big victory for liberal feminism. Women participated in benefit reading, large numbers, and performed capably, and the public proved willing to accept women soldiers as casualties and for a example, POWs. The Pentagon#146;s fears proved inflated, and its efforts to manage public perceptions (such as by silencing information about sexual assaults in the ranks) proved easier than expected. The main problems that arose from the women casualties and POWs were that they generated huge media interest which sometimes caused resentment among male colleagues and sometimes also was unwelcome to the women and system, their families. These problems arose mostly because of the novelty of the situation. 96.
Current issues In the conclusion for a compare and contrast essay, 1990s, some problems in US military gender integration persisted, in basic training, military academies, and art essay, #147;sex scandals.#148; Both military academies and basic training socialize new soldiers (officers and enlisted, respectively). Conclusion And Contrast Essay. The transition from an all-male environment to a mixed-gender one has not been smooth. Sexist elements in reflective essays, military culture have been slow to change, and harassment of women is widespread. Women soldiers face a no-win situation in terms of relationships with men: if they have sex with men, men see them as sluts or whores, but if not, the men see them as lesbians. In a 1992 Pentagon survey, about one-third of women soldiers reported experiencing some form of verbal or physical sexual harassment or abuse.
A 1992 US Senate report said that 60,000 women had been raped or assaulted while in the military. Conclusion For A. (Such figures do not show whether sexual harassment and assault are more common in the military than in civilian society.) 97. Pregnancy in the ranks, a controversial political issue, is not a major military problem. A retired admiral compares the pregnancy rate of about 10 percent with the #147;much higher disciplinary problem with the resume for cowboy, men, unauthorized absenteeism, absence in for a and contrast example, the brig for more serious offenses. Pregnancy is system a wash.#148; 98. In US military academies #150; West Point for the Army, Annapolis for the Navy, and the US Air Force Academy in Colorado, alongside various other private and public military academies #150; women have been integrated since 1976. The academies graduate about 600 women a year, who enter with records as distinguished as their male peers, perform equally in the academies, and go on to successful military careers. The only for a example area in which women lag behind men is in greek, certain physical requirements. Although many women keep up with the men on essay rigorous marches at West Point, other women (in disproportionate numbers) fall behind or need men#146;s help lightening the load. The average disparities in physical strength are a persistent source of gender conflict, as many men resent the different standard for women than men on gatsby certain physical fitness tests. (In the case of greatest difference, men must do ten pull-ups but women only three.) 99. In surveys of graduating West Point seniors in the 1980s, fewer than a third of women cadets felt #147;totally accepted#148; by other cadets, compared to over half of men. As one male cadet put it, #147;I would never openly harass women, [but] I hope they understand they are not welcome here.#148; Women cadets dropped out of West Point at twice the men#146;s rate after the second summer which emphasizes combat training (which women would not be allowed to put to use).
At the Air Force Academy in the early 1990s, one-third of women as compared to one-quarter of men dropped out before graduation. Essay. In the 1990s, incidents of sexual harassment apparently increased at over jobs essay, the academies. Compare Essay Example. Reportedly, the Coast Guard academy (with no gender restrictions) has the resume for cowboy, worst record on compare example sexual harassment in classical art essay, the service academies. For A Example. 100. The rough transition is perhaps to be expected; cultures change slowly. Reading. To military commanders, gender problems at the academies are a difficulty they can work around. Conclusion Compare. As one West Point officer put it, #147;This is not an experiment. This is an operational reality.#148; Men#146;s and women#146;s feelings notwithstanding, the benefit of newspaper reading essay, military is getting the officers it needs #150; which must include women in order to conclusion and contrast example meet the needed quality and quantity. Of Newspaper Reading. Furthermore, despite the sexist culture, most women are getting through the academies with records equal to those of the conclusion for a compare and contrast essay example, men. In the resume, words of compare example, one woman officer formerly at West Point, #147;In a nonnurturing environment, they are kicking ass. And that is the bottom line#148; 101.
In basic training, the problem of unfair treatment (lax or harsh) revolves around the relationship of drill sergeants and company commanders with their troops. By tradition, harsh treatment in great paper, boot camp helps socialize new troops into discipline and conclusion essay example, hierarchy. The drill sergeant #150; typically male #150; has unparalleled power over his troops. If some troops are female, this power can be used for sexual domination. In the mid-1990s several abuse-of-authority cases came to great thesis paper light, most visibly at the Army#146;s Aberdeen Proving Grounds where NCOs were accused of a widespread pattern of and contrast, rape and sexual abuse.
However, these problems occurred in occupational training, which follows on basic training and has long been gender-integrated. Congress in 1998 debated mandating the separation of genders during basic training, a move suggested by technology over a commission but opposed by the Pentagon as impractical (since men and women go on and contrast essay to serve together). Only the Marine Corps (as of resume, 1998) separates genders during basic training, and for a and contrast example, even the Corps in benefit of newspaper reading essay, 1997 began sending women to the follow-on (gender-integrated) combat training program after boot camp. As one male trainee said, #147;Men or women, that doesn#146;t matter#133;. Conclusion Compare Essay Example. All we see is another Marine.#148; The Navy#146;s boot camp, with about 15 percent women, uses mostly all-male divisions with the rest having equal numbers of men and women (to avoid problems that arise when a few women are scattered in reflective essays, a heavily male group). 102. Also complicating US military gender integration in the 1990s, sex scandals of various types brought unfavorable publicity and fueled political debates.
The first woman to pilot a B-52 bomber with nuclear weapons (a symbolically important role) was forced to for a compare and contrast essay example resign after she was accused of having an adulterous affair and then lying about it. Liberal feminists, among others, pointed to a double standard, since similar cases involving men had been glossed over in the past. In the student reflective essays, wake of the public controversy, a male nominee for Chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff was passed over because of an affair decades earlier. For A Compare Example. Military sex scandals moved out of the news, at least temporarily, when journalists#146; focus switched to the White House in 1997. 103. New combat positions While these general issues of gender integration swirled around the US military, the actual focus of women in combat shifted to reflective essays combat aircraft and ships #150; the compare and contrast, positions most often open to for cowboy women in the NATO countries discussed earlier. In considering military jobs related to combat in which women might be included, the conclusion for a and contrast essay example, US military reproduces roughly the same spectrum of tasks discussed earlier under NATO countries. Gatsby Thesis Paper. For example, a 1993 survey of retired high-ranking officers regarding women in compare and contrast essay example, combat showed, in great thesis paper, addition to greater support among those more recently retired, greater support for women in for a and contrast, warplanes (29% yes), attack helicopters (24%) and combat ships (24%) than in artillery (22%) and essays, combat engineering (17%), with least support for women in armor (12%) and infantry (10%). 104. In 1990, an conclusion for a compare example Air Force officer testified to Congress that women #150; then barred from only 3 percent of jobs in of newspaper, the Air Force, namely aircraft actually engaged in combat missions #150; #147;can fly fighters, they can pull Gs. For A And Contrast Example. They are physically capable and, I think, emotionally capable.#148; After the Gulf War, a Presidential Commission on women in combat recommended by a split vote to keep the status quo, but the Administration lifted the art essay, combat exclusion for women on almost all airplanes and conclusion compare essay example, ships (except submarines and great gatsby thesis paper, Navy commandoes).
Navy positions on ships are opening only as separate quarters are built. 105. Naval aviation also has opened up and several women have flown combat missions (in Iraq since 1998 and in Serbia in 1999). Controversy erupted when one of the first two women to fly the F-14A off aircraft carriers (Kara Hultgreen) died when her plane crashed after losing one engine just before landing. Conclusion Example. Opponents of women in combat aviation #150; including many of the Navy#146;s male pilots #150; seized on the accident and over essay, claimed that the pilot had substandard flight skills which were tolerated only because of her gender. It appears that Hultgreen#146;s inexperience, rather than substandard skills, caused an equipment failure to spiral to disaster when an experienced pilot might have prevented the crash. Nine male pilots flying the difficult F-14A had been killed in training accidents in the preceding three years. Essay Example. Eight out of nine male F-14A pilots who reenacted Hultgreen#146;s landing sequence in a flight simulator also crashed.
106. The Army and Marine Corps have been more resistant to women in combat. Nonetheless, in 1994 the Army opened combat support positions to women, allowing them into 20,000 previously prohibited jobs at brigade headquarters (closer to the front line). Three years later, however, fewer than 1,400 women had been assigned to those jobs, most doing traditionally women#146;s work (administration, health care, supply) in of newspaper essay, the newly opened units. Military studies show that men and women work together well when women are not a novelty in a unit (see pp. 199#150;203). With the opening of for a essay, new positions closer to combat, women became a novelty in those units (just as they still seem to be for each entering class at the academies, and in basic training). The Army makes no attempt to system avoid assigning one or two women alone to a unit of several hundred soldiers, nor does it train male soldiers effectively to conclusion for a and contrast essay work with women better. As a unit works together, however, and especially if it deploys in the field, unit bonding appears to overcome gender divisions to great thesis a great extent. Women soldiers who made up 10 percent of US forces in Bosnia in 1997 reportedly had #147;easygoing and untroubled#148; relations with the conclusion for a compare essay, men. For one thing, with US peacekeeping troops there wearing protective gear almost all the time, gender was less visible #150; it took one infantry colonel a week to realize that some of the MPs protecting him in the field were female.
In peacekeeping operations, women MPs are generally closer to the #147;front lines#148; than are the all-male infantry and armored units. Lines are further blurred by the Army practice of classical, ignoring regulations and conclusion compare, using females in supposedly off-limits jobs when practical considerations make it the best way to get the job done. Classical. Among the US forces in Bosnia, women blended in by adopting stereotypically #147;macho#148; attitudes and conclusion and contrast essay, behaviors, including swearing, smoking cigars, and getting a thrill from firing guns. Most importantly, they adopted a #147;warrior spirit.#148; As one female US Lt. Great. Colonel who commanded a Military Police battalion in Bosnia put it, #147;If a woman thinks like a warrior, believes she#146;s a warrior, then she#146;ll do what it takes. Compare Example. Most women don#146;t think they have it in them, but once you let that spirit loose you find that aggressiveness.#148; 107. The political debate Every step of the way, the experience of integrating women has fueled a raging political debate. Technology. The two sides tend to conclusion and contrast draw on two kinds of benefit reading, moral arguments. One concerns fairness #150; whether it is proper, desirable, or just to allow women to and contrast essay example participate in combat if they so choose, or even to assign women soldiers to combat on the same basis as men.
The second category deals with the effectiveness of the great gatsby thesis paper, military and whether the participation of women in conclusion for a compare and contrast example, combat would reduce or increase (or neither) its readiness, fighting ability, and morale. 108. Those who favor allowing women in combat rely on the fairness argument, and think the effects on military performance would be minimal. Women should be allowed any job opportunities for which they are individually qualified, not barred because of their gender alone. This view extends the logic applied to reflective essays other occupations from which females were traditionally excluded, from police and firefighters to corporate managers, political leaders, and so on. Especially in today#146;s large and bureaucratic US military, being a soldier can be a career path. Many top military positions require service in a combat capacity as a prerequisite, effectively barring women. Congresswoman Pat Schroeder said of the conclusion and contrast essay, combat exclusion laws that #147;the only thing they protect women from is promotion.#148; A focal point of women#146;s efforts to increase gender fairness in the military is the Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Services (DACOWITS). It was created by Defense Secretary George C. Art Essay. Marshall in 1951 to help bring more women into military service during the Korean War.
To overcome male resistance he awarded DACOWITS members the protocol rank of three-star general, which they still have. 109. Those who oppose women in for a and contrast essay example, combat rely on the effectiveness argument #150; that the military needs to taking over put priority on its main mission of winning wars, not on social-change experiments. For example, retired General Norman Schwarzkopf said: #147;Decisions on compare and contrast essay example what roles women should play in war must be based on for cowboy military standards, not women#146;s rights.#148; However, some opponents of for a compare essay, women in combat also rely on a #147;fairness#148; argument. They see protection for women as men#146;s end of a gendered division of labor: #147;Good men respect and defend women.#148; A widely reported exchange between Senator William Cohen and Air Force General Merrill McPeak took place soon after the Gulf War: 110.
The two sides interpret the same set of episodes from the late 1980s and early 1990s differently. As in the movie Rashomon , contradictory versions of the same episode seem credible and coherent, with the resume for cowboy, #147;truth#148; being difficult to pin down. Each side plays up elements that support their political positions, and for a essay example, omits elements that undermine them. Each side accuses the other of great gatsby paper, manufacturing false information #150; to slander military women (with the collusion of male military officials), or to cover up military women#146;s failings (with the collusion of liberal media and politicians), depending which side you take. Pro-feminist Linda Francke and anti-feminist William Breuer, for conclusion essay example, example, tell contradictory stories about Linda Bray#146;s experiences at the Panamanian military kennel (see p. 94). According to Francke, Captain Bray arrived at the kennel #150; which turned out to be a base and weapons cache for Special Operations troops #150; ten minutes into a fierce half-hour gun battle in which the unit she led was outnumbered by Panamanian defenders firing from the great paper, surrounding woods.
She took cover in a ditch, fired her pistol at the enemy once, and rode in the armored vehicle that crashed through the front gate. A few days later, three Panamanian soldiers#146; bodies were found in the woods, probable casualties of the Bray-led attack. According to conclusion for a compare and contrast essay example Breuer, however, the kennel was militarily insignificant, there was only some sporadic fire and great gatsby thesis paper, Bray was not even there at the time. She did not crash through the gates or lead her men in combat. Breuer focuses on exaggerated media reports of a long firefight with many dead Panamanians strewn about for a compare essay (one report refers to phd thesis photovoltaic #147;a three-hour-long infantry-type battle#148;). Breuer takes as fact a Los Angeles Times report that Francke calls disinformation leaked by Pentagon officials but not supported by the facts. Similar disputes surround other cases, notably the Hultgreen crash (see p. 99).
111. Despite the creeping proximity of women to compare essay combat, the gender structure of labor in technology, the US military continues to place women primarily in traditionally feminine areas. The large-scale gender integration creates more of the rare cases of women in and near combat, but these #147;newsworthy#148; cases should not blind us to the general pattern of conclusion compare, gendered labor. In the first plans for a women#146;s corps drawn up in the 1930s, the US Army conceived of women as #147;a menial type of corps of low-grade personnel.#148; Nearly half would be used as clerks and stenographers, with the for cowboy, rest divided between domestic services (cooking, sewing, laundry, and cleaning), driving, labor, and conclusion compare and contrast essay example, other unskilled occupations. System. A few would be skilled workers such as telephone operators. 112. In World War II, the Army realized it could save money by conclusion and contrast essay example substituting women for benefit of newspaper reading essay, men soldiers. Person for person, WACs cost 3 percent less to maintain than men (mostly owing to conclusion lower housing and food costs). Phd Thesis Photovoltaic System. More importantly, although women replaced men at a one-to-one ratio in driving and mechanical jobs, one woman could do the work of two men in conclusion for a and contrast essay, traditional women#146;s jobs such as clerical work. From this experience came the idea decades later #150; in the all-volunteer force where labor was a commodity to be bought, not conscripted #150; that budgets could be best utilized by drawing on either men or women according to individual ability for system, a particular job. 113.
Today, US military women are strongly concentrated at low ranks and pay grades (Figure 2.5). Furthermore, although women made up over 10 percent of the US military in 1989, they were still concentrated in for a essay example, traditionally female occupations (see Figure 2.6). About two-thirds of US women soldiers are in phd thesis, administration, health care, communications, and service/supply occupations. They are the successors to the historical secretaries, nurses, telephone operators, and conclusion for a and contrast example, #147;camp followers#148; (who once did the cooking, sewing, laundry, cleaning, and supply roles). The main area of change, in terms of for cowboy, women in nontraditional roles, is in equipment repair. Combat-related occupations, such as training and conclusion for a and contrast essay, combat support of benefit of newspaper reading, various kinds, amount to just 4 percent of women (about 7,500 people).
Women make up about one-quarter of health care and and contrast essay example, administration personnel, about 10 percent of service, communications, and student, technical personnel, and just 2.5 percent of combat-related personnel. These data understate women#146;s combat exposure in the Navy, where 15 percent of conclusion for a compare and contrast, women serve on ships and women in traditional occupations may serve in combat positions (e.g., nurses on greek combat ships). The opposite applies for the Army, where women in nontraditional occupations are banned completely from combat positions, including infantry, armor, and most artillery units. Although women helicopter pilots received public attention during the Gulf War, in 1991 women pilots represented under 5 percent for each branch #150; Army, Navy, and Air Force #150; fewer than 1,000 pilots in for a and contrast, all (not counting women navigators and aircrew). 114. Figure 2.5 Percent women at paper, each pay rank, US military, 1997. Figure 2.6 Occupations in compare essay example, US military (enlisted) by gender, 1998. In the US Army in student essays, 1997 #150; after the opening of some combat-support occupations and positions to conclusion compare essay women but while most women were in occupations chosen before that opening #150; women troops were still concentrated in administration (one-third), health care (one-sixth), and service and supply (one-sixth). For men, fully 32 percent were in infantry, gun crews, and seamanship.
Among the women officers , almost half were in health care (doctors are officers), another quarter in logistics and classical, administration. Conclusion For A Compare And Contrast Essay. For male officers, by contrast, almost half were in classical, tactical operations. These differences are gradually eroding from year to and contrast year, however. Classical Art Essay. 115. One could argue that women are in the traditional roles because these are the conclusion compare and contrast essay example, roles they want and are best at. Indeed, most women soldiers do not want combat assignments #150; but then neither do most men. Classical Art Essay. In a 1992 US survey, 12 percent of enlisted women and 14 percent of conclusion and contrast example, officers said they would volunteer for the combat arms if allowed to classical do so.
Another 18 and 15 percent, respectively, said they might do so. Compare And Contrast Essay Example. (About 75 percent of photovoltaic, women soldiers thought that women should be allowed to volunteer for combat.) These numbers translate into a pool of nearly 25,000 current soldiers, and possibly twice that number, ready to volunteer for combat. 116. Overall, the results of the US experience indicate a broad, deep, and well-rounded capability of example, women to participate in the kinds of actions and operations required for combat, and to hold their own in combat itself when drawn into it. Reflective Essays. Most of the conclusion for a compare and contrast, problems revolve around men#146;s difficulties in adjusting to the presence of women in their midst, and even those problems are most acute when women are a novelty and much less so after men work together with women soldiers. The US experience is significant because it is occurring on a very large scale #150; the largest such effort ever in student reflective, peacetime. The most widespread involvement of essay, women in combat has been neither in all-female nor in thesis paper, gender-integrated units, but rather as individuals scattered through the ranks. Conclusion And Contrast Essay. Such women combatants are found in many cultures around the world, and in many historical periods, although generally in reflective essays, extremely small numbers compared to male combatants. Put together, these thousands of compare and contrast, cases add up to a strong endorsement of the conclusion that individual women can hold their own in combat when circumstances permit (or force) them to do so. Historically, women who have participated in combat usually did so disguised as men.
An Englishman joked in technology taking essay, 1762 that #147;so many disguised women were serving in the army that they ought to have their own regiments.#148; This presents a real problem for assessing the evidence: we cannot know how many women have successfully participated in this manner #150; surviving (or being buried) without detection. We can only know those whose gender came to light, which most often occurred after a serious injury requiring prolonged medical care. Historically, most armies have not provided such care in the way we take for granted today, and wounded women may have left the ranks without discovery. Furthermore, soldiers killed in battle would not generally be undressed before being buried. Thus, we do not know how many women lie in soldiers#146; graves.
Nonetheless, scholars have documented enough cases of cross-dressing women warriors, discovered before or after death, to draw some inferences. 117. Women soldiers in men#146;s clothes are found in for a compare and contrast essay example, most regions of the world. In the old Chinese story of photovoltaic, Mulan, a young woman dresses as a man, serves in the army in place of conclusion for a essay, her sickly father, earns distinction, has her gender discovered after the student reflective essays, fact, and ultimately returns home to a feminine role. Mulan was adapted by Disney, with artistic license, as a cartoon movie in 1998. Although probably a fictitious or composite figure even before Disney got hold of her #150; scholars disagree about when and where she lived, and conclusion for a essay, even her family name #150; she is probably based on great paper real cases. This basic story recurs in conclusion for a compare example, various cultures, including several true stories (perhaps exaggerated for phd thesis photovoltaic, commercial reasons) that spurred popular books, articles, and speaking tours. Conclusion For A Essay Example. A central message is that gender relations are overturned in wartime but restored in the happy ending.
For example, Franziska Scanagatta reportedly graduated from the resume for cowboy, Austrian military academy in 1797, during the conclusion compare and contrast, French Revolutionary Wars. Photovoltaic System. She served in the campaigns of 1797 and 1799, and was promoted to lieutenant in 1800. However, her gender was discovered the next year and she left the army, marrying another lieutenant and having four children. For A Example. In the US Revolutionary War, Deborah Samson (sometimes spelled Sampson) apparently did serve in male disguise, although her later autobiography and benefit of newspaper, lecture tour were fictionalized. She won a small pension afterwards, and her husband even received benefits based on her service.
118. Among the for a essay example, best documented cases is the US Civil War. It took place in a transitional era when the military was organized enough to maintain records on classical individual soldiers but not organized enough to provide all entering soldiers with detailed physical exams. Women participated on both sides. Most women serving at the front in the Civil War did so as nurses (Clara Barton being the most famous), and others served as #147;daughter of the regiment#148; #150; a morale booster and support person (similar to conclusion for a compare and contrast essay example the Israeli role mentioned earlier). These nurses and #147;daughters#148; stayed just behind the lines, in theory, but in fact were sometimes caught up in of newspaper reading essay, battle.
Other women accompanied the troops until combat became imminent, as wives and conclusion for a compare example, girlfriends, cooks and laundresses. 119. In several dozen documented cases, women dressed as men and system, fought in the ranks. For example, #147;Frank Mayne#148; (Frances Day) disguised herself to follow her lover into the Union Army, stayed on after he died from disease a few weeks later, and was promoted to sergeant. Her secret was discovered when she was mortally wounded in battle. Lizzie Compton enlisted in seven different regiments, joining a new unit each time her gender was uncovered. #147;Frank Martin#148; (Frances Hook) fought in Tennessee in 1862 but was mustered out, against her pleas, when her gender was discovered after she was seriously wounded in battle. She reenlisted in a Michigan regiment in Kentucky, was found out conclusion compare essay, again, and reportedly served later in an Illinois regiment. Hook was, according to the Michigan regiment records, #147;quite small, a beautiful figure#133;.large blue eyes beaming#133;.exceedingly pretty and very amiable.#148; By contrast, another woman soldier wounded in the same Tennessee battle (in a Minnesota regiment), Frances Clayton, was described as very tall and masculine looking. She learned to drink, smoke, chew tobacco, and swear prolifically in order to help conceal her gender.
Clayton had enlisted to be with her husband. Photovoltaic. Both these women were considered excellent soldiers and brave fighters, despite their differences in physique and appearance. Compare And Contrast Essay Example. 120. #147;Albert Cashier#148; (Jennie Hodgers) served for benefit of newspaper reading essay, three years with the conclusion, Union and classical, was in combat forty times, notably in the brutal 1863 battle for Vicksburg, Mississippi, where Cashier#146;s name is inscribed on and contrast the battlefield monument. Cashier was considered dependable, healthy, and fearless by her commanders #150; the equal of anyone in #147;his#148; company, despite a lack of size and brawn. She continued to technology taking over jobs essay pose as a man after the war, her story coming to conclusion for a and contrast essay light only in 1913 at age 70, shortly after Hodgers was sent to a hospital for over essay, the insane. Conclusion For A. The story caused a minor sensation. Hodgers#146;s former sergeant visited and reported her #147;broken#148; because #147;she was compelled to benefit reading essay put on skirts.#148; She told him: #147;The country needed men, and I wanted excitement.#148; 121. On the Confederate side, generally fewer women served near the front than on the Union side, although some women served in support roles usually called #147;mother#148; of the troops.
Some Confederate women did serve while disguised as men. #147;Richard Anderson#148; (Amy Clarke) enlisted in the Confederate army with her husband, stayed after he was killed, and was captured by the Union and and contrast, released in a dress after her gender was discovered. She then apparently (although evidence is thin) returned to service as a lieutenant, even though her gender was then known. Lucy Matilda Thompson #150; tall, masculine, and an expert shot #150; also enlisted in the Confederate army with her husband, and was discovered only of newspaper reading essay after serious injury. 122. While some women believed in the Confederate cause, others joined only to compare essay remain close to husbands or boyfriends. Phd Thesis. Sarah Malinda Blaylock of North Carolina joined the Confederate army with her husband, although he was a Unionist, when he was about to be drafted. A month later, he rubbed his body with poison sumac and received a medical discharge. For A. She immediately revealed her identity and was discharged as well. They went on to become Unionist partisans, and led raiding parties from the Tennessee mountains.
123. The most famous women soldiers of the war served as spies and published their stories afterwards. Great. #147;Franklin Thompson#148; (Sarah Emma Edmonds) adopted a male identity before the compare and contrast example, war and worked in greek, the Union army as a #147;male#148; nurse and mail carrier who was recruited to the secret service and for a compare and contrast example, slipped behind Confederate lines on numerous occasions to bring back vital military information (Figure 2.7). On these forays, Edmonds adopted disguise-within-a-disguise, as an African American man, or an Irish woman peddler. Art Essay. She lived through many battles, deserted the army when her identity appeared to be in jeopardy, and published a best-selling book in 1864, Nurse and Spy , about her escapades, told as though she were a female nurse who sometimes adopted male disguise. She was the only woman ever accepted into the veterans#146; group, Grand Army of the Republic, in 1898. Conclusion For A Compare Essay. (Several other cross-dressing women combatants wrote successful books, encouraging similar, fictional stories.) 124. Figure 2.7 Sarah Emma Edmonds as #147;Franklin Thompson,#148; US Civil War. Resume For Cowboy. [Courtesy of State Archives of and contrast essay, Michigan.] Edmonds#146;s counterpart in the Confederacy was #147;Lieutenant Harry T. Buford#148; (Loreta Janeta Velazquez). With the help of over, a fake moustache and beard, Velazquez fought with the Confederate army as an independent lieutenant (floating from conclusion for a one unit to another as needed) in 1861, and at least twice temporarily took charge of a company that had lost its officers. Student Reflective. She served under her fiance without being recognized by him, worked as a spy switching in for a essay example, and out of for cowboy, male and female attire, and conclusion compare essay example, was arrested by both the North and the South numerous times on charges of spying or (in the South) being a woman, only to get away each time and gatsby, carry on.
After revealing herself to her fiance (when both were recovering in a hospital) and marrying him, only to have him die weeks later, Velazquez gave up male disguise and turned to spying full-time, as a woman. And Contrast Essay. She became one of the South#146;s most effective secret agents, working as double (and once triple) agent under the North#146;s secret service, counterfeiting large sums in the US Treasury to greek finance the Confederacy, blockade-running through Cuba, and making a clean getaway at conclusion compare and contrast, the end of the war. She published her controversial memoirs in 1876. Of Newspaper Reading. 125. Many women were discovered quickly and discharged #150; often victims of their #147;feminine#148; mannerisms, such as how they put on stockings or wrung out dishcloths. Two soldiers were found out when officers threw apples to conclusion and contrast essay them, which they tried to jobs essay catch with their aprons (they were not wearing aprons).
Another, according to an 1862 newspaper account, was found out conclusion for a, after #147;trying to put her pants on over her head.#148; Several women were discovered after giving birth, including a Union sergeant whose delivery was #147;in violation of all military law#148; according to an outraged superior officer, and a Confederate officer who gave birth after being taken prisoner by the North. Many women, however, were discovered only after injury or death, and an unknown number either were buried on the battlefield or survived the war undiscovered. Thesis Paper. Of course, while hundreds of women soldiers may have fought in conclusion essay example, the Civil War, hundreds of thousands of men did. The participation of women was limited in that they almost always had to pretend to be men in order to fight, and they were summarily dismissed or punished when discovered. 126. Women have participated in naval warfare and as pirates on photovoltaic a number of occasions, in conclusion essay, a variety of technology taking, roles #150; disguised as men, working in support jobs on conclusion for a compare and contrast essay example ships, and in rare cases as openly female combatants. In the sailing ships of the British Navy in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it was common for taking jobs essay, women to accompany men to sea, both as wives and conclusion compare example, as service workers (prostitutes, cooks).
As Figure 2.8 illustrates, in resume, time of battle women participated under fire, facing many of the conclusion and contrast example, same dangers as the men. They traditionally helped nurse the wounded and phd thesis, carry gunpowder to the cannons. The latter was an conclusion compare and contrast essay example especially difficult and student, dangerous task, since heavy cartridges had to be carried from the (spark-free) powder room up ladders to compare essay the slippery and smoke-filled gun deck, over and over. It was #147;not unusual#148; for the noise, vibration, and stress of battle to of newspaper reading essay induce labor in conclusion for a example, a pregnant woman, who gave birth with little assistance from others. 127. Figure 2.8 British seaman#146;s wife helps a wounded seaman in benefit reading essay, battle, 1830. [From Matthew Henry Barker, The Log Book . Conclusion For A Example. London: J. #038; W. Classical Greek. Robins, 1830.] These combat support roles for and contrast essay, women at sea are supplemented by quite a few cases of women who adopted male dress and joined the Navy as regular sailors #150; usually motivated by phd thesis photovoltaic system economic and social restrictions faced by women on conclusion for a essay example land (and by pure adventurousness). Of three biographies of eighteenth-century women who went to benefit reading essay sea with the for a essay, Royal Navy, one turns out to be accurate, one is embellished with fiction, and the third entirely fictitious. The public showed both tolerance of, and amusement at, the story of a woman dressing as a man and taking to sea, especially if she went in search of a lost love (which few real women did) and returned to normal gender roles at the end of the story. For Cowboy. It was surprisingly easy to pass as a man in the eighteenth century, when men were routinely press-ganged into naval service to fill labor shortages in the war-prone British Navy.
As with all cross-dressing female soldiers, it is hard to estimate numbers of real historical cases behind the popular ballads. 128. Openly female fighters. The form of female participation found least often is the isolated individual female soldier who, without gender disguise, fights among her male comrades. Cultures tend to treat these as exceptional cases, decoupled from any idea of women#146;s systematic participation. For example, the Russian Naval Academy#146;s first female cadet, admitted in 1997, is being treated as an conclusion for a and contrast essay example exception #150; admitted by resume special decision of the Defense Minister. To quote an officer at the academy, #147;One girl alone cannot ruin the navy.#148; Many stories describe individual, remarkable women who simply went to conclusion for a compare essay war as women, their strong abilities usually convincing males to resume accept them despite their gender. Conclusion Essay. Some of these stories are of dubious historical accuracy, other are composites of reflective, several cases, and others are well documented.
The phenomenon of individual, openly female warriors is widespread and conclusion for a compare and contrast, yet, in phd thesis, most times and places, rare. 129. Simple societies In several simple, prestate societies, women sometimes participate in fighting. In these societies, combat and support roles are not always clearly separated (although in some cultures they are), so that when a small band of warriors goes off to fight, women may accompany them and occasionally participate in fighting. For A Compare And Contrast. I have mentioned the phd thesis photovoltaic system, case of women of the Eurasian steppes in the early Iron Age (see pp. 13#150;14). Among the Maori, women fought in emergencies, as when inner home defenses were threatened. This was unusual, however. As the Maori proverb says, #147;Fighting with men and compare and contrast essay example, childbirth with women.#148; Several other cases illustrate women#146;s participation, although in none of them do women play a role equal to men in combat. Some native American societies allowed women to participate in combat to a minor extent. Among the southern Apaches, some women accompanied war parties and jobs essay, a few #147;also fought and were known for their bravery and expert marksmanship.#148; Reports are somewhat contradictory, however.
Cremony reported in 1868: Many of the women delight to participate in for a and contrast example, predatory excursions, urging on the men, and actually taking part in conflicts. They ride like centaurs and handle their rifles with deadly skill#133;.[T]he fighting women#133;.are numerous, well trained, and desperate, often exhibiting more real courage than the essays, men. However, a 1941 report states that Apache raiding parties were #147;made up of men only. For A Compare And Contrast Essay Example. Women never go on raids.#148; Nonetheless, prisoners taken in battle were often taken back to student essays camp for the women (especially those who had lost loved ones in battle) to torture and kill. For A Compare And Contrast Essay. Apache girls and young women received much physical training including riding and using knife, bow, and rifle #150; and technology taking jobs essay, were expected to and contrast essay example guard camp while males were away. Adult women occasionally joined a raiding or war party, usually to help with cooking, cleaning, and taking essay, nursing. 130. The most famous woman Apache warrior was Lozen, who rode and fought with Geronimo (against the US and Mexican armies in the late nineteenth century). Lozen was unusual because she was not married. A witness who, as a child, rode with Geronimo#146;s band recalls: #147;Lozen#133;.was called The Woman Warrior; and though she may not have had as much strength as one of the men she was as good a shot as any of them.#148; This witness mentions that #147;no unmarried woman was permitted to go#148; with a war party. #147;Lozen?
No, she was not married#133;. But to us she was as a Holy Woman#133;. And she was brave!#148; Lozen, the conclusion for a compare essay, sister of Chief Victorio, reputedly used her powers as medicine woman to detect the of newspaper reading, enemy#146;s presence and compare and contrast example, help the reflective essays, Apache warriors elude capture on many occasions. After her brother#146;s death, Lozen rode with Chief Nana, who #150; with a force of 15 to compare and contrast example 40 warriors #150; eluded a US force of over 1,000 soldiers and won eight battles against greek art essay them. Lozen went on to ride with Geronimo, was eventually captured with him, and died in custody. Clearly, however, Lozen was the exception. Most Apache women did not participate in war, and most war parties did not integrate women into the ranks. 131.
On the long war expeditions of the extremely aggressive Mundurucu (Brazil), warriors were joined by their wives and conclusion and contrast essay example, #147;a number of unmarried girls. Their tasks were to carry cooking utensils and resume, all of the equipment of the men, except for for a compare and contrast example, their arms#133;. They also cooked, fetched water and technology taking, firewood and conclusion essay example, performed other female services. Contrary to [an 1831 report]#133;.that the women helped on art essay the battlefield#133;.the women were always left at a safe distance#148; during fighting. 132. Cheyenne Indian women also occasionally, though rarely, went with war parties, and showed courage equal to conclusion for a compare and contrast the men. Greek Art Essay. When the chief#146;s horse was killed in compare essay example, a battle in 1876, his sister charged in among the white troops and rode away with him to safety. Resume. According to some reports, Cheyenne women who had been in compare essay example, wars formed a small guild and held meetings.
Women also occasionally accompanied war parties among the Shasta (California). The women cut enemy bowstrings with knives, and were sometimes taken prisoner. They also cooked and carried supplies. The Gabrielino society (California) #150; wrongly characterized by nineteenth-century writers as #147;timid and peaceful#148; #150; used women and children to accompany war parties, carrying the food and supplies, as did the Hidatsa, Choctaw, and Guiana Amerindians. Possibly, Klamath (Oregon) women fought other women in of newspaper reading essay, war. The Konkow sometimes allowed women to participate in torturing captured male enemies. 133. Women#146;s participation in conclusion essay example, torturing and over, killing prisoners is and contrast essay example found elsewhere as well, scattered across the anthropological record of cross-cultural research on simple societies.
For example, among the Tupinamba of Brazil, women enthusiastically helped torture prisoners of war to death and then dismember and eat them. Similarly, Kiwai women of Oceania had the special job of #147;mangling#148; enemy wounded and then killing them with knives or digging sticks. In seventeenth-century colonial Massachusetts a mob of women tortured two Indian prisoners to death after overcoming their guards. System. Afghan women in essay, the nineteenth century tortured enemy survivors of battle. In 1993 a mob of Somali women tore apart four foreign journalists. 134. It is possible, incidentally, for gatsby thesis paper, a culture to mobilize women into combat support without taking away their noncombatant protected status. In Papuan warfare, women #147;collect stray arrows for their husbands#148; and scout enemy movements, enjoying immunity from conclusion for a example attack. Kapauku warfare (New Guinea) extends total immunity to women who function as support troops in thesis, the middle of the compare and contrast essay, battle. #147;The Kapauku consider it highly immoral for greek art essay, a man to shoot at and contrast essay, a female during a battle.
Even an accidental injury brings#133;.derision and resume, loss of prestige.#148; These cases highlight the distinction between combat and combat-support categories. 135. In Celtic traditions, women warriors are a recurrent theme. Beyond the historical cases, warrior queens of dubious historical basis also figure prominently in legends and myths of many cultures. For example, Queen Medb (Maeve), in the Celtic classic The Tain , would have lived around the first century AD. In the legend, the goddess-warrior Medb commanded 1,500 soldiers but was most fearsome as a single warrior. For A And Contrast Example. The Celtic tradition in general gives considerable latitude for military roles to women. Student Essays. In Celtic myth, #147;again and conclusion for a and contrast example, again it is the magic intervention in great gatsby thesis paper, the course of battle of for a, a female, goddess, queen or a combination of the student, two, which provides the focus or climax of the story.#148; Legends refer frequently to warlike queens and for a and contrast, goddesses, but little hard evidence indicates actual women fighters. Even the goddesses of essay, war generally do not engage in battle, but use magic to influence battle outcomes, or sometimes train men in the art of war. As for historical evidence, since the Celts were not literate, we must rely on second-hand accounts.
A Roman historian claimed that if a Celt called in his wife, foreigners would be hard pressed, since she was stronger than him and could rain blows and kicks of amazing strength on for a essay example the foreigners. However, I have found no evidence that Celtic women participated as regular soldiers in warfare. If they did so, they left little trace. 136. Historical cases in industrialized societies In industrialized societies, individual women have also fought openly on occasion. In the French Revolutionary Wars, which first mobilized a whole national population for war service on a mass scale, several hundred women proposed forming a women#146;s militia. Art Essay. A proposal for a women#146;s battalion was considered, but rejected, in conclusion for a and contrast example, 1793. However, Renee Bordereau served openly in the royalist cavalry, fighting with #147;unbelievable courage,#148; evidently out of rage at the murder of reflective, 42 of her relatives (including her father before her eyes).
Afterwards she dictated her memoirs which were published as a pamphlet. In the French siege of Saragossa, Spain, in 1808, a Spanish woman named Agostina served with hundreds of women bringing drink to the 200 defending soldiers and water to swab the cannons. When the French broke through and killed all the conclusion compare and contrast, artillerymen, Agostina began firing a cannon, and other women joined in, forcing a French retreat. After the resume for cowboy, war, she continued as an conclusion for a example artillery captain, in uniform with standard pay and pension, despite being openly female. A French woman, wearing male clothing but known by all to be female, fought competently in Corsica in phd thesis system, 1792#150;99, and conclusion compare example, retired as a sergeant major after being wounded.
Another woman served openly in the French army in 1793#150;1815, was wounded six times, and dictated her memoirs afterwards. Taking Over Jobs. No attempt was made to discharge her, because she fought well. 137. In at least two cases in the US Civil War, similarly, women served openly as officers in the Confederate army at the rank of captain (in addition to those disguised as men). Conclusion. During World War I, a number of women participated individually in for cowboy, several armies.
One of the conclusion for a example, most famous, Englishwoman Flora Sandes, fought with the Serbian army on the same terms as the men, and took an Austrian speaking tour in 1920. 138. Just as individual women have proven capable as soldiers, so too they have shown themselves adept as military leaders. Male soldiers and officers will follow the commands and exhortations of a female leader #150; and not just one whose gender is disguised #150; when that leader is deemed to possess proper authority. Joan of Arc The most famous case #150; although it is atypical #150; is Joan of Arc. As a peasant girl, she heard voices telling her that God wanted her to save France, which was doing poorly in the Hundred Years War against England. The English, with the classical greek, collusion of some French forces, occupied much of France including Paris and the cathedral of Reims where French kings were crowned, and were besieging Orleans. At age 16, Joan somehow convinced the French ruler to provide her some troops and send her to conclusion for a example Orleans, where (in 1429) she rallied the demoralized army trying to relieve the siege.
She personally led the attack on thesis the key English fortress, and prevailed. Using her ability to motivate the rank-and-file soldiers with religious fervor, and overcoming some initial resistance by the French military leadership, Joan led the army to a series of victories, culminating in the coronation of Charles VII at Reims with Joan by his side. These successes turned the tide of the Hundred Years War. The next year, Joan was captured by Burgundy and for a compare and contrast essay, sold to the English, who condemned her both for idolatry and for wearing men#146;s clothing, and jobs essay, burned her at the stake. 139. Joan#146;s main strength as a military leader was her ability to inspire troops to follow her. Leadership is critical in overcoming the paralyzing terror and confusion of conclusion for a and contrast, soldiers on the battlefield (see pp. 253#150;58). Joan pro- vided the taking jobs essay, necessary strong leadership, in a manner not unlike that of the captains of mercenary units at that time.
The mercenaries would risk their lives for their captain and were rewarded with plunder, whereas Joan#146;s troops were rewarded with spiritual ecstasy. The French soldiers believed that Joan was a holy presence. They loved her, and conclusion for a essay example, rushed to touch her, or her horse. Joan exemplified a spiritual life: she prohibited looting by photovoltaic her troops, even for conclusion for a and contrast example, food. She was charitable to all. She chased away pro-stitutes (who follow armies; see pp. 342#150;48).
She prayed frequently and heard mass daily. In battle, she refused to shed blood personally, preferring to carry her standard instead of using her sword. Reportedly she could not stand the sight of blood. Her soldiers #150; the same ones those prostitutes had been serving #150; claimed they were not sexually aroused around her, even when they saw her breasts or bare legs (when she was dressing, or wounded). Photovoltaic. Instead, the soldiers #147;relished the spirituality of their own existence when with her.#148; In addition to these qualities, Joan appears to have had a knack for military tactics. She was especially adept at riding a horse while wielding a lance, at setting up artillery (which was fairly new), and at organizing armies for battle.
Her contemporaries described her as a simple, innocent, and for a compare example, ignorant girl except in the art of war, where she acted as though she had 30 years#146; experience. 140. Most women military leaders, unlike Joan, were queens who held political power and exercised military leadership from that position. Greek Art Essay. Antonia Fraser reviews the record of a dozen such historical #147;warrior queens.#148; Different stories treat such figures differently #150; for conclusion for a compare, example, some emphasizing their chastity and others their sexual voracity. 141. The documented historical cases include Semiramis (Sammu-ramat), who ruled Assyria in 811#150;806 BC after her husband#146;s death and before her son came of age. Not much is known about her, but Greek writers built her up into a legendary adventuress, conqueror, and voracious lover #150; a story further embellished, centuries later, in a Voltaire play and a Rossini opera. 142. The forces of Tomyris, queen and general of the Massagetae in today#146;s eastern Iran, defeated the Persian ruler Cyrus in the sixth century BC, according to the fifth-century Greek historian Herodotus (who here, unlike the Amazon case, is reporting fairly recent history). When Cyrus tried to great gatsby paper conquer her territory, using trickery and capturing her son, Tomyris#146; army crushed the Persians in an extremely violent battle and killed Cyrus.
Fifty years later, the Persian king Xerxes battled the Greeks at Salamis, with a warrior queen at his side #150; Artemisia of Halicarnassus (again, according to and contrast example Herodotus, who praises her #147;manly courage#148;). Although she advised against the unwise naval encounter with the Greeks, Artemisia fought more bravely than Xerxes#146; male commanders: he is supposed to have said, #147;My men have turned into women, my women into men.#148; The Greeks, who resented a woman warring against them, had offered a large reward for art essay, Artemisia#146;s capture, but she managed to escape the battle alive with some clever tactics. (Tactics included ramming and sinking a friendly vessel, convincing a pursuer that she was on his side, while Xerxes assumed she had sunk an enemy vessel.) 143. The legendary and historical British queen Boudica (Boadicea or Boudicca) led a rebellion against the Romans around 60 AD (17 years after their invasion). A statue of her on a chariot stands near the British Parliament (see Figure 2.9). Boudica took leadership of the Iceni people (in present-day England) after her husband died. Her Iron Age society was of for a compare example, Celtic heritage (see p. 115) #150; warlike, reckless, horse-loving, robust and strong, prone to system fighting naked accompanied by loud noise and frequent drinking. Celtic women, although they did not rule in a matriarchy as has been claimed, led freer lives than Roman law allowed. Women were not excluded from Celtic religion, which included powerful goddesses, and example, apparently women could serve as druids (priests). Phd Thesis System. The historian Tacitus said of the Britons (in contrast to the Romans), #147;they make no distinction of sex in their appointment of for a compare and contrast example, commanders.#148; At the time Boudica took power, another queen, Cartimandua, presided over the Brigantian territories to greek art essay the north, as a client of Rome (which had come to her aid when her rule was threatened).
144. Figure 2.9 Statue of compare and contrast essay, Boudica, London. [By Thomas Thornycroft. Taking Jobs. Photo © by Sue Lanzon.] Boudica#146;s own history is sketchy, although the main outlines seem clear. Upon the death of Boudica#146;s husband, the Romans seized his estate, dispossessed the Iceni nobles, flogged the new queen, Boudica, and for a and contrast, raped her two daughters. These humiliations came at a time of wide resentment against imperial rule. Benefit Reading. Drawing on spiritual and political symbols, Boudica mobilized her people to for a and contrast rebel, and led an army of possibly 100,000 which overran, burned, and sacked a Roman colonial settlement. Taking Jobs Essay. Joined by other tribes, the example, army ambushed the Roman reinforcements and moved on the trading city of London, which the Romans abandoned and the rebels burned, as they did a third city, populated by Britons friendly to Rome. In the course of technology, these attacks, tens of thousands of people died and many atrocities occurred. Conclusion. The Romans regrouped, attacked Boudica#146;s army, and #150; with superior experience and equipment #150; routed them and technology taking over jobs, killed tens of thousands of conclusion and contrast example, soldiers along with their families who had come to see the battle.
Boudica reportedly killed herself afterwards. Benefit Reading Essay. Rome inflicted vengeance on the Britons, and went on to rule for conclusion essay example, 400 years. Queen Cartimandua had not joined the rebellion, and remained in power. 145. Two hundred years after Boudica#146;s rebellion, Queen Zenobia of Palmyra led a similar revolt against the Roman empire, in modern-day Syria. Around 260 AD, Zenobia#146;s husband Odainat, ruler of the Roman colony Palmyra, went to war against classical Persia and won. The incredibly beautiful Zenobia rode with the men in wartime, was as brave as her husband, and supposedly had sex only for purposes of procreation. When her husband and his heir from an conclusion essay example earlier marriage were assassinated, Zenobia took power as regent for her own son.
She quickly turned to an ambitious campaign of military conquest, and within a few years ruled a large territory from Egypt to the Bosphorus, then declared independence from gatsby paper Rome. She rode with her troops (an army of 100,000 or more), transmitting orders through her general. Eventually Rome attacked, reconquered the territory, sacked Palmyra, and conclusion compare and contrast example, took Zenobia captive. Taken to Rome, she apparently survived and built a comfortable life married to photovoltaic a Roman senator. For A Compare And Contrast Essay Example. 146. Matilda of Tuscany was an important ally of Pope Gregory VII in his eleventh-century power struggle with the Emperor Henry IV. Pious and technology over jobs, largely chaste, she led her army on the battlefield, exhorting her troops and plunging into the battle with sword in hand.
She won and lost many battles, played important diplomatic roles, and died in old age. Her body was reburied in St. Peter#146;s (Rome) in the seventeenth century, with the inscription: #147;This warrior-woman disposed her troops as the Amazonian Penthesilea [of Greek myth]#133;.#148; 147. In the conclusion compare and contrast, twelfth century, Maud #150; daughter of King Henry I of England and husband of resume, Emperor Henry V #150; became heiress to conclusion compare example the English throne after her brother and then her husband both died. Classical. In the conclusion for a compare, long succession struggle with her (male) cousin following her father#146;s death, Maud both led and defended against various military attacks and sieges. 148. Queen Tamara of twelfth-century Georgia plotted military strategy for aggressive campaigns, marched with her army, and spurred her soldiers on with battlefield speeches. The voraciously sexual Tamara of Georgian legend contrasts with the real Tamara, #147;more of a matriarch than an erotic heroine,#148; who was later canonized by the church. 149. These European queens #150; to whom we may add Queen Isabella of taking over, Spain and Queen Elizabeth of England #150; are joined by others far from Europe.
The first-century Vietnamese sisters Trung Trac and Trung Nhi are said to have raised an army that expelled Chinese invaders 2,000 years ago (see Figure 2.10). For A Compare Essay Example. One commander in their force supposedly gave birth at the front before fighting her way through enemy lines with her baby on her back. The Rani of Jhansi led the nineteenth-century Indian rebellion against British rule. 150. Figure 2.10 Trung sisters drive Chinese from Vietnam in 39 AD. [From Fraser 1989, 96f.]
Queen Nzinga (or Nzingha, N#146;Zinga, Jinga, or Mbande Zinga) of seventeenth-century Angola took power when her brother (the king) died. A cannibal who personally beheaded and drank the blood of resume, prisoners, her economic base was the conclusion for a and contrast example, slave trade. Nzinga ruled first Ndongo and thesis paper, then #150; never having fully overcome sexist traditions there #150; neighboring Matamba which had some history of female rulers. She shifted alliances between the Portuguese and the Dutch, and is currently seen in Angola as a proto-nationalist who inflicted military defeats on colonialist Portugal. (Some writers claim that Nzinga#146;s army included many female soldiers, but this seems to conclusion for a compare and contrast essay have no basis.) 151. Historical warrior queens sometimes tried to link themselves symbolically (for practical reasons) with well-known goddesses of system, war #150; Semiramis (ninth-century BC Babylon) with the goddess Astarte, Cleopatra (first-century BC Egypt) with Isis, and Boudica (first-century AD England) with Celtic warrior goddesses. In other cases, warrior queen figures are symbolic of the conclusion and contrast example, nation and removed from military strategy. Queen Louise of Prussia led the fight against Napoleon #150; as a national symbol dressed in military attire, but not a military strategist or fighter (she suffered disastrous defeat). Art Essay. 152. Other women in more recent centuries have shown leadership in for a and contrast essay, battle. For Cowboy. During the conquest of Paraguay by its neighbors in for a essay example, 1864#150;70, the dictator#146;s mistress, Elisa (Ella) Lynch, played an important role and held the rank of colonel.
In one critical battle in 1868, as a town was being overrun, she rode to the women#146;s camp, organized thousands of women into an #147;army#148; carrying hoes and brooms, and marched back over the hill to town, where Argentinian infantry panicked and ran at the rumor of thousands of Paraguayan reinforcements arriving. This seems to have been an isolated incident, although Paraguayans of all ages and resume for cowboy, both genders participated in home defense in for a and contrast, several other desperate battles during that war. 153. In feudal times, in resume, both Europe and conclusion compare example, Asia, it was not unusual for women to phd thesis take over defense of their castle when their men were away, held prisoner, or killed. The Countess of compare essay example, Montfort, who lived in fourteenth-century France, is an exemplary case. When her husband was taken prisoner by an archrival #150; a man given to atrocities in war #150; the Countess organized military affairs including morale, finance, tactics, and diplomacy. Phd Thesis Photovoltaic System. When besieged by the rival, she led the defense, dressed in armor, from horseback in the streets, mobilizing women to throw down stones and boiling tar on conclusion essay the enemy. She used a secret gate to benefit of newspaper essay sneak out with some knights during a lull, then destroyed half the for a compare and contrast essay example, enemy in essays, an attack from behind, breaking the siege. (Although victorious, the conclusion for a and contrast example, Countess ultimately went mad and lived her last 30 years in isolation in a castle.) 154. Modern political leaders in phd thesis, wartime.
Women in the present-day interstate system sometimes become military leaders when they hold political power during wartime. For example, Margaret Thatcher, Golda Meir, and Indira Gandhi led their countries in war. (Thatcher is the only woman to lead a #147;great power#148; this century.) Benazir Bhutto of Pakistan and Corazon Aquino of the Philippines both struggled to control their own military forces in the late 1980s (Aquino survived seven coup attempts). Turkey#146;s Tansu Ciller prosecuted a harsh war to suppress Kurdish rebels in the mid-1990s. President Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga of Sri Lanka (and the conclusion compare essay example, prime minister, her mother) practiced war against for cowboy Tamil separatists after her peace initiatives failed. Violeta Chamorro of Nicaragua kept the peace between factions that had fought a brutal civil war. Other states, such as Norway and Iceland, have had women leaders at times when war and peace were not major political issues in those countries. Conclusion. 155.
Female national leaders use both #147;masculine#148; and #147;feminine#148; styles in military and diplomatic matters. Aquino#146;s modest femininity was a great asset in diplomacy. Gatsby. On a 1986 US visit, according to a State Department official, Aquino #147;had hard-bitten politicians eating out conclusion and contrast essay, of the palm of her hand.#148; However, this femininity made it harder for her to gain loyalty and obedience from her military. Over Jobs. After each of several coup attempts, Aquino delivered speeches that first addressed military and government officials in masculinized English and then switched to more feminine phrases in Tagalog to address her citizens. 156. In sum, overall, women like men seem capable of conclusion and contrast example, leading in war or in peace.
They do not appear to be more peaceful, more oriented to nonviolent resolution of international conflicts, or less committed to state sovereignty and territorial integrity than are male leaders. We still lack enough data, however. Women national leaders, from photovoltaic World War II through 1993, number 28 individuals (excluding hereditary heads of state) #150; a small fraction of the total. 157. US foreign policy Within the United States foreign policy establishment, women leaders do not show particular softness compared with male counterparts. Both Secretary of conclusion for a compare essay, State Madeleine Albright and UN Ambassador Jeane Kirkpatrick were hard-liners within their administrations. (Kirkpatrick, incidentally, remarked of the White House Situation Room that #147;I don#146;t think there had ever been a woman in that room before.#148;) In the US Congress, it is classical greek art essay hard to conclusion compare essay compare men#146;s and women#146;s voting records on foreign policy issues because there have been so few women. Technology Over. The US Senate was 98#150;99 percent male until 1992, when it dropped to compare essay only 94 percent male. Women have never chaired the key foreign policy committees (Armed Services and Foreign/International Relations) in the Senate or the House. 158. In the classical, US State Department in 1989, women held fewer than 7 percent of the senior foreign service positions (up from conclusion for a essay 2 percent in 1970), but 79 percent of the lowest-rank civil service positions (from 72 percent in 1970). Thus, men more often make the classical, policies while women type the memos.
A #147;glass ceiling#148; holds women down in the State Department hierarchy. In the Department of Defense, similarly, women are concentrated at low levels and have trouble moving up the hierarchy either as service members or as civilians. 159. A 1993 study of foreign policy insiders found that career women in the State Department were less hard-line and less prone to recommend force than men. However, for women political appointees at for a example, State and for both career and political women in Defense, no such gender gap existed. In fact, #147;in the few instances in which they differed from their male counterparts, [women] seemed to be more hard line and conservative.#148; Regarding the foreign policy process, there were no statistically significant gender differences. Nearly 90 percent of men and women at both State and Defense, excluding career women at reflective, Defense who split evenly, thought that having more women in the Department would not affect foreign policy or process. Overall, little evidence shows that women foreign policy insiders hold a #147;women#146;s perspective#148; on conclusion compare and contrast example international issues or the policy process.
160. A 1990 poll asked US men and women whether they thought women in public office would do a better job than men, in several issue areas. Across issues, more women than men thought women would do a better job, but this gap was only technology jobs essay a few percentage points on most issues. Both genders on average thought women would do a better job in improving education, assisting the poor, protecting the environment, governing honestly, and conclusion essay, working for world peace. Taking Jobs. Both genders thought women would do a worse job in trade negotiations, diplomacy, decisions about war, and (especially) directing the essay example, military. The main societal factors creating difficulty for female US foreign policy insiders were the technology taking essay, stereotypes of for a example, foreign policy as a male preserve and of women as unknow- ledgeable about foreign affairs. Among the poll respondents, almost all women and nearly three-quarters of men said the public sees women as knowing less than men about foreign affairs, although only 22 percent of women and 11 percent of resume for cowboy, men said they personally believed that idea. 161. A 1976 study analyzed gender differences in elite opinion about foreign policy issues.
Of the women, 42 percent were educators or media leaders (occupations that tend to compare essay example be #147;dovish#148;), whereas 38 of the men were military officers or business executives (#147;hawkish#148; occupations). The women were also somewhat younger on for cowboy average, and conclusion for a and contrast essay, more likely to be Democrats and self-described liberals; 73 percent of men and 11 percent of women had military service records. Multivariate statistical analysis controlled for phd thesis photovoltaic, some of these variables. Conclusion Compare And Contrast Essay. On Cold War questions, significant gender differences appeared on only four of photovoltaic system, twenty items. Of the nine questions in conclusion compare example, this cluster relating to the use of force, only one showed a significant gender gap. Greek Art Essay. On international questions unrelated to the Cold War, such as poverty and humanitarian concerns, again few gender differences were found. Only on questions regarding #147;isolationism#148; did a consistent and significant gender gap appear, with women more isolationist. In multivariate analyses, occupation rather than gender was the best predictor of foreign policy views. This study suggests that US women in leadership positions in conclusion for a and contrast essay, the 1970s did not share the for cowboy, tendency of the general population of women to be somewhat more peace- ful on foreign policy questions (see pp. 329#150;30). This could be because women achieved leadership positions by emulating, or being selected for, #147;masculine#148; qualities.
162. Diplomacy Women#146;s military leadership abilities might overlap with their more general political and diplomatic capacities. US women ambassadors, beginning with the first in 1933, show #147;striking similarities#148; as high-energy risk takers, patriotic, courageous, tall, physically fit women who loved their jobs. And Contrast Essay Example. As girls, they were curious about the world, were called tomboys, were voracious readers, and phd thesis photovoltaic, received special attention from and contrast essay parents and teachers. Only 17 of 44 were married while serving as ambassador.
The ambassadors, especially the early ones, faced sexist attitudes in the host countries and institutional lack of support (though equal pay) within the State Department. Of Newspaper. Most #147;accepted the conclusion compare essay example, fact of discrimination as a condition of the times and classical greek, carried on without too much grumbling.#148; Men, in describing these ambassadors, referred frequently to their #147;femininity.#148; The women used this to compare example advantage: since they were not considered threatening, they could speak bluntly to male officials without the latter worrying about losing face. However, the first US woman appointed as ambassador to a Middle Eastern country, April Glaspie, was blamed by reading Congressional critics for supposedly giving Saddam Hussein the #147;green light#148; to invade Kuwait. One senior male State Department official reportedly said: #147;We have some lessons to for a and contrast essay example learn. The first is don#146;t send women as Ambassadors.#148; 163. Fortunately, Hapsburg emperor Charles V did not obey that logic in 1529, when the resume, Paix des Dames (#147;Ladies#146; Peace#148;) ended a destructive war with France. The peace resulted from the initiatives of Marguerite of Austria #150; the emperor#146;s aunt and regent of the Hapsburg-controlled Netherlands #150; and Louise of Savoy, who was the French king#146;s mother and Marguerite#146;s sister-in-law. The negotiations grew out of a feeler to Marguerite#146;s ambassador at a party given by Louise in Paris. For A Compare Essay. Both sides were under pressure owing to the complexity of resume for cowboy, shifting alliances. By negotiating through his mother, the French king kept his allies out of the talks and retained the ability to for a compare and contrast essay reject the result if he did not like it. The treaty demonstrated Western Europe#146;s common interests and allowed efforts to be redirected against Turkey.
Marguerite is generally credited as the central player and classical greek, Charles as the main beneficiary of the treaty. For A And Contrast Essay Example. 164. Five centuries later, however, in paper, the emerging international civil service of the United Nations staff, women#146;s potentials remain underutilized. The UN staff is nearly half female at the lowest levels, but women are only about 10 percent of the top staff, just over 5 percent of Assistant Secretaries General, and zero percent of Undersecretaries General (1992 data). All seven Secretaries General have been male.
Despite a commitment in the UN Charter that women be eligible to participate equally in any capacity (gained by the activism of for a compare and contrast essay example, Eleanor Roosevelt and a few others in 1945), in reality women have faced persistent discrimination at the UN. 165. The evidence #150; from large-scale organized female participation through various types of gender integration through the participation of individual women #150; shows that when women have found their way into combat, they have generally performed about as well as most men have. Women in combat support roles, furthermore, have had little trouble fitting into military organizations, and have held their own when circumstances occasionally placed them in combat (especially in guerrilla wars). They can fight; they can kill. Yet exceptional individual women who wanted to reflective essays go to war had either to overcome stubborn resistance from men or to adopt male disguise. Overall, the conclusion for a essay, war system works to push women away from killing roles except in the most dire emergencies such as when defending their homes and children. This does not necessarily protect women participants from harm.
Women have faced great danger on the battlefield, whether as nurses in art essay, front-line trenches, as powder-carriers aboard ships and in artillery units, or as helicopter pilots ferrying male troops around. For A And Contrast Example. What these women generally do not share with the men around them is the task of aggressive killing. Most striking are the student, very rare historical cases in which larger numbers of conclusion compare essay, women were mobilized into combat #150; a substantial number of the healthy, strong young women in a population. Reading. In the conclusion for a and contrast essay, nineteenth-century Dahomey Kingdom and the Soviet Union of World War II, women made up a nontrivial minority of the great thesis paper, military, and conclusion compare and contrast, clearly contributed to the war effort. They were a military asset which, when mobilized, increased the effectiveness of the military in combat, in student essays, a few cases even turning the tide of battle. Women#146;s physical strength, while less than men#146;s on average, has been adequate to many combat situations #150; from piloting to sniping to firing machine-guns. One recurring argument of those opposed to women in combat #150; that the women would be unable to conclusion for a compare drag wounded comrades from the battlefield under fire #150; is refuted by the record of essays, women nurses#146; doing so. Women#146;s supposedly lower levels of aggressiveness, and their nurturing nature, have been, historically, nobstacle to many women#146;s participation in conclusion and contrast example, combat. Furthermore, contrary to the idea that women are too soft-hearted to resume kill, not only did Soviet snipers coolly shoot down dozens of German soldiers, but in conclusion for a compare essay, various cases women took the lead in cruelty and classical art essay, torture, especially of prisoners.
1 De Pauw 1998, disappear xiii; Pennington ed. n.d. 2 Laffin 1967, verify 186, bed 185; Salmonson 1991; Jones 1997; De Pauw 1998, 17#150;25. 3 Polanyi 1966, 3, 26#150;27; Manning 1982, 9#150;11; Duncan 1847, visiting 233#150;38; Alpern 1998; Dalzel 1967. 4 Polanyi 1966, 28; Snelgrave 1734, 125#150;26; Wrangham and Peterson 1996, 109#150;10; size: Alpern 1998, 72#150;75; Forbes 1851/I, 14#150;15, Forbes 1851/II, 55#150;56; Obichere 1971, 67; loyalty: Ajayi and Smith 1971, 52. 5 Duncan 1847, muskets 224#150;27, 231#150;35; Forbes 1851/I, resembled 23; Smith 1989, mats 59; physique: Herskovits 1938, 46; Burton in Alpern 1998, 36; Smith 1989, none 43, 47; Turney-High 1971, 155, 159#150;60. 6 Alpern 1998, 158, courage 159, fleeing 162; Forbes 1851/I, cruelty 132; Duncan 1847, 236, prefer 240. 7 Forbes 1851/I, we 23, 134; Alpern 1998, 44#150;47; Herskovits 1938, broken 46, segregated 48; Duncan 1847, bell 257#150;58. 8 Polanyi 1966, mobilized 42#150;43; Herskovits 1938, send 76, administration 85. 9 1840: Forbes 1851/I, 14#150;15; infuriated: Ajayi and for a compare and contrast example, Smith 1971, 37#150;39, 50#150;51; France: Obichere 1971, 67#150;75, commander 75, 107; Alpern 1998, 104.
10 Alpern 1998, manpower 36#150;37, weapons 61, 65#150;68; firearms: Smith 1989, 51, 81; M. Harris 1989, 285. 11 Obichere 1971, preeminent 120#150;21. 12 Griesse and classical, Stites 1982, labor 68#150;69. 13 Griesse and Stites 1982, drafted 31, specialty 69. 14 Griesse and compare, Stites 1982, vague#150;Komsomol 73, teens 31; De Pauw 1998, 239#150;45; D. Jones 1997, 137#150;45. 15 Griesse and over, Stites 1982, memoirs#150;combat 75, 71#150;75; Presidential Commission 1993, C28. 16 Griesse and Stites 1982, hostile 72. 17 Griesse and Stites 1982, 71; Krylova: Jones 1997, 137#150;40. 18 Griesse and Stites 1982, pass 69, subculture 72; British: Quester 1977, 81#150;82.
19 Cottam 1983; Noggle 1994, 15#150;17, 99#150;101; White 1994, 7#150;11; Griesse and Stites 1982, 70; Pennington 1993; [less reliable: Myles 1981; Jones 1997, 140#150;45]. 20 White 1994, 9#150;11, verge 10; Noggle 1994, 18#150;98. 21 Noggle 1994, 99#150;156, dangerous 105; White 1994, 9. 22 Noggle 1994, 157#150;219, attacked 160#150;61; White 1994, 8; Cottam 1983, strength 7. 23 Noggle 1994, 157#150;58; White 1994, 8#150;9; Jones 1997, 142#150;43. 24 Griesse and Stites 1982, 71#150;72. 25 Griesse and Stites 1982, integrated#150;snipers 69#150;72; Jones 1997, 45; cf.
Randall 1981, grenades 145#150;46. 26 Griesse and Stites 1982, 72. 27 Griesse and Stites 1982, proved 73, German 75. 28 Tuten 1982, 48#150;49. 29 Tuten 1982, 51. 30 Tuten 1982, 54#150;55. 31 Tuten 1982, 55#150;56; De Pauw 1998, 245#150;47; Jones 1997, 200; Seifert 1995; practice: Ruth Seifert, personal communication 2000. 32 De Pauw 1998, 214#150;16, 207#150;30; Hirschfeld 1934, 110#150;23; Stites 1978, policy 280. 33 Botchkareva 1919, 71#150;136; Stites 1978, 280.
34 Botchkareva 1919, 154#150;71; Stites 1978, 280; White 1994, 4#150;5, 13; Bryant 1918, 212, 216#150;18. 35 Shame: Botchkareva 1919, 157, 207, 211, studio 161; Bryant 1918, 10. 36 Botchkareva 1919, began 163#150;64, swarming 173, 172#150;83, 202#150;5, uniforms 189, 192, 197. 37 Botchkareva 1919, sisters 207, knew 262. 38 Botchkareva 1919, adjutant 205, 208#150;12. 39 Bryant 1918, 212#150;13. 40 Botchkareva 1919, soldiers 165. 41 Spence 1996; Fairbank ed. And Contrast Essay Example. 1978, 276#150;77; Michael 1966, 43#150;45; Jen 1973. 42 Boulding 1992/I, 237; David Graff, personal communication 1998; Peter Lorge, personal communication 1998; De Pauw 1998, 204#150;5, 332#150;33; Li 1995; Twitchett and Loewe 1986, Ch#146;iang 433, 422#150;23. 43 Ancient: Alpern 1998, 2#150;3; Chinese: Yu forthcoming; Danish: Francke 1997, 243; Montenegrin#150;Serbian: Jancar 1982, 87; Congo#150;Malawi: Brown 1998; Shaka: Brown 1998; Edgerton 1988, 38#150;39, 107; Thompson 1969, 344.
44 Pettman 1996a, 126#150;53; Isaksson 1988; Ruddick 1990, 231; Elshtain 1987, 184#150;85; Zur 1989, 315#150;20; Zur and Morrison 1989; Vietnam: D. Butler 1990; Jason ed. 1991; Argentina: Taylor 1997; Taylor 1993; Cyprus: Pourou-Kazantzis 1998; Lebanon: Cooke 1987; Keddie and Baron eds. 1991; Moghadam 1993; Emmett 1996; Kandiyoti 1996; Nicaragua: Mulinari 1996; Mulinari 1998; South Africa: Cock 1989; Cock 1991; Unterhalter 1987, 119; Zimbabwe: Thompson 1982; Philippines: Aguilar-San Juan 1982; Others: Ridd and Callaway eds. 1986; Matthews 1993; S. Carter 1992; Noakes 1998, 103#150;63; Mora 1998; Beilstein 1998; Collett 1996; Peterson and reading, Runyan 1993, 129#150;35. 45 Wilhelm 1988, Italy 119; Weitz 1995, 147#150;70, fighters 148, 150, comrade 155; Jones 1997, 199#150;203. 46 Jancar 1982, roles 85, 100, NLA 90, 99, training 93#150;94, medic 97#150;98; Jancar-Webster 1990, clothes#150;married 89. 47 Jancar-Webster 1990, 88; Jancar 1982, 93.
48 Duiker 1982, 114#150;15; Turner 1998, estimates 20#150;21; De Pauw 1998, 269#150;72. 49 Duiker 1982, policy#150;one 117#150;19; south: Francke 1997, 244. 51 Enloe 1983, 166; Bayard de Volo 1998, 246. 52 Jones 1997, founder 103; Randall 1981, director 138#150;39, 147; Seitz, Lobao, and Treadway 1993, 175. 53 Bayard de Volo 1998, give#150;wombs 246#150;48; cf.
Mora 1998, 170; Luttwak 1997. 54 Uglow ed. For A And Contrast. 1989, 400#150;1; Cock 1991, numbers 182#150;83; Sylvester 1989, 108; cf. Kenya: Kanogo 1987, 94. 55 Cock 1991, knitting 149, equals 162#150;65, luxuries#150;killing 152#150;53, 150, defend 165, man 168; Morris 1993. 56 Hall 1993, apocryphal 104#150;5; Fellman 1992. 57 Filkins 2000, third; Ganguly 2000, half; De Pauw 1998, two-thirds 292; De Alwis 1998; Bennett, Bexley, and essays, Warnock 1995, 135#150;56, 228#150;41. 60 Enloe 1983, 160#150;72; Tetreault 1992; Boulding 1992/II, 288#150;92; De Pauw 1998, 290#150;91. 61 Seager 1997, 92; Segal 1993, 86; Manning 1999; law: Jerusalem Post 2000; ruling: Inverardi 2000. 62 Fisher 1999; De Pauw 1998, 292.
63 Lory Manning, personal communication 1998; Enloe 1982, 127#150;31; NATO 1994. 64 NATO 1994, 4; Enloe 1994, 81; O#146;Hara 1998, 23, 14; Associated Press 1998a; Weinstein and White 1997. 65 NATO 1994, 6, 8. 66 NATO 1994, 16. 67 Manning 1999; NATO 1994, 25. 68 Manning 1999; NATO 1994. 69 Van Creveld 1993, 6#150;9; Gal 1986, 46#150;57, 32#150;33, 48#150;49, brochure 47, sister#150;sought 52; Bloom 1982; Enloe 1983, 156. 70 Gal 1986, 50, succeeded#150;recruits 49#150;50, 52#150;53; Van Creveld 1993, 8#150;9; Jerusalem Post 2000.
71 De Pauw 1998, 281#150;86. 72 Manning 1999; Elshtain 1987, 241; Stiehm 1989; Presidential Commission 1993; Moore 1996. 73 De Pauw 1975, 174#150;93, later 174#150;75; De Pauw 1998, 110#150;15. 74 De Pauw 1998, 115#150;31. 75 Treadwell 1954, 6#150;10, status 10; De Pauw 1998, 225#150;29; Hewitt 1974.
76 Treadwell 1954, 18. 77 Campbell 1990, 107; De Pauw 1998, 247#150;58; Larson 1995. 78 Treadwell 1954, 611, 626, overweight 627. 79 Treadwell 1954, rule 612#150;14, pregnancy 507#150;9. 80 Treadwell 1954, 503#150;7, punishing 503, battle 676; Campbell 1990, morale 112. 81 Treadwell 1954, 675. 82 Treadwell 1954, caste 511#150;14, drinks 681#150;82, immoral 678, betrayal 682, 669#150;83. 83 Costello 1985, 49, 52. 84 Soderbergh 1992, xv, gung xvii. 85 Soderbergh 1992, 146#150;47. 86 Treadwell 1954, 191#150;218; Campbell 1990, 115#150;17, survey 116; Meyer 1996, 33#150;35, uniforms 154; De Pauw 1998, 251#150;58; Costello 1985, 47; Enloe 1983, pocket 119, 141.
87 Treadwell 1954, release 184, failure 189; Costello 1985, cheery#150;draft 47#150;48; Bourke 1999, poll 303. 88 Francke 1997, noon 22. 89 Manning and Griffith 1998, number 9; Marlowe 1983; US Army 1982, 2, 1.2, 1.4; Quester 1977, 85; Nabors 1982; Thompson 2000. 90 Rustad 1982, 46; Enloe 1983, 7; Dyer 1985, 122#150;25. 91 Corps: US Army 1982, 4.4#150;4.5; tanker: Francke 1997, 228#150;29. 92 Francke 1997, 46#150;72. 93 Francke 1997, 76. 94 Francke 1997, 73#150;103; survival 80#150;82, 87#150;91; Enloe 1993, 222; WWII: Manning 1999. 95 Francke 1997, 82, doctor 102, asshole 97; Cornum 1996; Sciolino 1992.
96 Enloe 1994, 99; Enloe 1993, 201#150;27; Francke 1997, 96. 97 De Pauw 1998, 7; Enloe 1983, 145; Francke 1997, 250, 29; Senate: McNeil-Lehrer News Hour, July 1, 1992. 98 Francke 1997, wash 251. 99 Francke 1997, 183#150;219. 100 Francke 1997, welcome 205, data 200#150;7; Moskos 1994, coast 61; Stiehm 1981; Mitchell 1996. 101 Francke 1997, reality 200, line 216; Ballard 1996; Stiehm 1981; Faludi 1994; New York Times , April 23, 1997: A20; Hess 1997.
102 Myers 1997a; Myers 1997b; Myers 1998a, Myers 1998b; Shenon 1998; Janofsky 1997, matter; D. Conclusion Compare Example. Johnson 1997, Navy. 103 Shenon 1997; Associated Press 1997; Sciolino 1997a; Sciolino 1997b; Spinner 1997a; Jones 1997a; Jones 1997b; Cohen 1997b; Myers 1998c. 104 Presidential Commission 1993, D-9. 105 Francke 1997, capable 221. 106 Manning 1999, several; Francke 1997, 256#150;58; Spears 1998. 107 Priest 1997a; Priest 1997b; Priest 1997c; Moskos 1998. 108 Moral: Peach 1993; Peach 1996; Presidential Commission 1993, 46; Hackworth 1991, 24; Holm 1992, 389; Lagerspetz et al . 1988; debate: McNeil 1991; Stiehm 1981; Rustad 1982; Goldman ed. 1982; Mitchell 1989; Blacksmith ed.
1992; Howes and Stevenson eds. Art Essay. 1993; Addis, Russo, and Sebesta eds. Conclusion Compare Essay Example. 1994; US House 1992; US Department of Defense 1992, 15; Mariner 1997; Donnelly 1997; Cohen 1997a. 109 Van Creveld 1993, 8; Bendekgey 1992, 19, 23; DeFleur 1992, 25; Fuentes 1992, 35; Katzenstein 1998, 45#150;103; Summers 1992, promotion 131. 110 Holm 1992, experiments 389; Gutmann 2000; Presidential Commission 1993, Schwarzkopf 46, defend 46; Katzenstein 1998, exchange 50. 111 Bray: Francke 1997, 46#150;72; Breuer 1997, 139#150;40; Dever and Dever 1995, infantry 127; Hultgreen: Francke 1997, 256#150;58; Breuer 1997, 206#150;12. 112 Treadwell 1954, 12. 113 Treadwell 1954, chapter 37. 114 Aviators: Francke 1997, 226; Katzenstein 1998, 79; Navy#150;all: Manning 1999. 115 Priest 1997b.
116 Presidential Commission 1993, D5; Astrachan 1986, 63#150;65. 117 Wheelwright 1989; De Pauw 1998, regiments 105; Enloe 1983, 119#150;23. 118 Mulan: Raven and Weir 1981, 32; Ayscough 1937, 214#150;27; Scanagatta: Wish Stream 1964; Samson: De Pauw 1998, 126; Wheelwright 1989, 132#150;35. 119 Hall 1993, xi, daughter xiii, 4. 120 Hall 1993, 177, 20, 161, Hook 26#150;28. 121 Hall 1993, 20#150;26. 122 Hall 1993, 98#150;101.
123 Hall 1993, 101#150;3. 124 Hall 1993, 46#150;97; De Pauw 1998, fictional 106. 125 Hall 1993, 107#150;53, temporarily 108, 120; De Pauw 1998, 153; Wheelwright 1989, 139#150;41. 126 Hall 1993, 155#150;56, pants 156#150;57, birth 159#150;60. 127 Stark 1996, 82#150;122, battle 71#150;72; De Pauw 1982; Stanley ed.
1995; Creighton and gatsby thesis, Norling eds. 1996; Druett 2000. 128 Stark 1996, motivated 92, biographies 102, easy 88#150;90. 129 Stanley 1998, A4. 130 Griffen 1988, also 12; Cremony 1868, 142; Opler 1941, raids 333, 350#150;51; Stockel 1991, xii, 17, 46, 30. 131 Stockel 1991, 29#150;51, 41; Ball 1980, witness 103#150;4. 132 Murphy 1957, distance 1022#150;23; Goldschmidt 1989, 23. 133 Grinnell 1923, Cheyenne 44#150;47; Heizer ed. 1978, Shasta 218#150;19, Gabrielino 546#150;47, Konkow 380; Turney-High 1971, Shasta#150;others, 154; Klamath: Gatschet 1890; Barrett 1964; Stern 1965; Cressman 1956; Spier 1930, 31; Goldschmidt 1989, 23. 134 Brazil: M. For A And Contrast. Harris 1989, 321; Kiwai: Turney-High 1971, mangling 162, 7; Massachusetts: De Pauw 1998, 113#150;14; Somali: Ehrenreich 1997a, 128#150;29. 135 Pospisil 1963, 59.
136 Fraser 1989, story 14#150;17; Boulding 1992/I, 276#150;82; Matthews 1989, 76#150;77; Stone 1979, 47, 49#150;52, 68#150;69; Larrington ed. 1992, 123#150;25; Green 1993, 27#150;28; Mac Cana 1970, 86; Green 1993, 24; Chadwick 1970, 134#150;35; Ritchie and Ritchie 1985, 14; Dillon and Chadwick 1972, 25, 146; Hill 1986; Ellis 1996, 77#150;98. 137 Pierson 1987, militia 208#150;10; De Pauw 1998, 135#150;39. 138 Civil: Hall 1993, 104#150;5, 163#150;64, 154; WWI: Hirschfeld 1934, 111#150;15; Wheelwright 1989, 29#150;36, Sandes 14#150;16, 147; De Pauw 1998, 212, 207#150;30; Bourke 1999, 294#150;97, 299#150;333. 139 DeVries 1996; Wheeler and Wood eds. 1996; Enloe 1983, 118#150;19; Fraioli 1996, 189; Wood 1996, 19; Schibanoff 1996. 140 DeVries 1996, 5#150;12, relished 9. 141 Fraser 1989, 11#150;13.
142 Fraser 1989, 28#150;30. 143 Fraser 1989, 30#150;34; Lefkowitz and Fant 1977, 11#150;12. 144 Fraser 1989, 43#150;106, naked 47#150;48, Tacitus, 53#150;55; De Pauw 1998, 70#150;74. 145 Fraser 1989, 58#150;101. 146 Fraser 1989, 107#150;28; De Pauw 1998, 75#150;77. 147 Matilda: Fraser 1989, 131#150;50; Europe: Boulding 1992/II, 33; De Pauw 1998, 82#150;87. 148 Fraser 1989, 151#150;66. 149 Fraser 1989, 167#150;81, matriarch 168. 150 Trung: De Pauw 1998, 269; Rani: Fraser 1989, 272#150;96. 151 Boxer 1952, 227#150;28, 242, 261, 264#150;69, 274, 286; Miller 1975; Miller 1976, 203#150;21; Birmingham 1966, 6, 92#150;116; Vansina 1966, 134#150;44; Beachey 1976, 88#150;90; Alpern 1998, 2; claim: De Pauw 1998, 180#150;81; Salmonson 1991, 198; Brown 1998.
152 Fraser 1989, 17. 153 Barrett 1938, 263. 154 Fraser 1989, 158#150;59; Montfort: Tuchman 1979, 74#150;75. 155 Fraser 1989, 307#150;22; Richardson and resume, Howes 1993; Carras 1995; Harris 1995; Nelson and Chowdhury eds. 1994; Genovese ed. 1993; Norris 1997; Williams 1995; cf. Victoria: Monypenny and Buckle 1912, 1089. 156 Boudreau 1995, 75, 78#150;79. 157 Number: D#146;Amico 1995, 24#150;25; McGlen and conclusion for a compare and contrast essay, Sarkees 1993.
158 Burwell and Sarkees 1993, 111, 115; Jeffreys-Jones 1995, room 175; Morin 1995, 274; McGlen and Sarkees 1993, 2#150;3; DuBois 1995. 159 McGlen and Sarkees 1993, 76, glass 83, 87; Burwell and resume, Sarkees 1993, 117#150;31. 160 McGlen and and contrast essay, Sarkees 1993, 196#150;215, differed 211, process 254, affect 283, overall 302. 161 McGlen and Sarkees 1993, 37, 46, 47. 162 Holsti and Rosenau 1981; selected: Cantor and phd thesis photovoltaic system, Bernay 1992.
163 Morin 1995, striking 264, 266, 270, 272; McGlen and compare essay, Sarkees 1993, send 300. 164 Von Habsburg 1969, 123#150;24; Knecht 1982, 219; Brandi 1939, 279#150;80.